“Everything under control?”: Privacy control salience influences both critical processing and perceived persuasiveness of targeted advertising among adolescents
Given that adolescents continuously interact with the user interface of a social networking site, it might be a strategic place to address privacy-related issues. This study investigates whether and how privacy control features embedded in Facebook’s user interface could serve as a cue to influence adolescents in their critical processing and perceived persuasiveness of targeted advertisements. To test this, an experimental study among 178 adolescents aged 14-16 years was conducted. Results reveal that increasing privacy control salience by means of user interface elements leads to more critical processing of targeted advertising; at the same time, when adolescents perceive a higher privacy control, they also evaluate a targeted ad as more effective, convincing and reliable (i.e., increase in perceived persuasiveness). The study further identifies two underlying mechanisms by which these effects operate: perceived control and self-efficacy. Based on these findings, theoretical contributions and practical implications are discussed to optimize advertising campaigns on social networking sites in a responsible and privacy-protective way.
Advertising; privacy control; Facebook; critical processing; persuasion
Acquisti, A., Brandimarte, L., & Loewenstein, G. (2015). Privacy and human behavior in the age of information. Science, 347, 509–514. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa1465
Aguirre, E., Roggeveen, A. L., Grewal, D., & Wetzels, M. (2016). The personalization-privacy paradox: Implications for new media. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 33, 98–110. https://doi.org/10.1108/JCM-06-2015-1458
Ajzen, I. (2002). Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 665–683. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2002.tb00236.x
Altman, I. (1975). The environment and social behavior: Privacy, personal space, territory, crowding (Clean & Tight Contents edition). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cde.
Armitage, C. J., & Conner, M. (1999). Distinguishing perceptions of control from self-efficacy: Predicting consumption of a low-fat diet using the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 72–90. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1999.tb01375.x
Baker, S. M., Gentry, J. W., & Rittenburg, T. L. (2005). Building understanding of the domain of consumer vulnerability. Journal of Macromarketing, 25, 128–139. https://doi.org/10.1177/0276146705280622
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman.
Barnes, S. B. (2006). A privacy paradox: Social networking in the United States. First Monday, 11(9). https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v11i9.1394
Bleier, A., & Eisenbeiss, M. (2015). The Importance of trust for personalized online advertising. Journal of Retailing, 91, 390–409. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretai.2015.04.001
Boerman, S. C., Kruikemeier, S., & Borgesius, F. J. Z. (2017). Online behavioral advertising: A literature review and research agenda. Journal of Advertising, 46, 363–376. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.2017.1339368
Boerman, S. C., & van Reijmersdal, E. A. (2016). Informing consumers about “hidden” advertising: A literature review of the effects of disclosing sponsored content. In P. De Pelsmacker (Ed.), Advertising in new formats and media (pp. 115–146). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Boerman, S. C., van Reijmersdal, E. A., & Neijens, P. C. (2014). Effects of sponsorship disclosure timing on the processing of sponsored content: A study on the effectiveness of European disclosure regulations. Psychology & Marketing, 31, 214–224. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20688
Bonneau, J., & Preibusch, S. (2010). The privacy jungle: On the market for data protection in social networks. In T. Moore, D. Pym, & C. Ioannidis (Eds.), Economics of information security and privacy (pp- 121–167). Boston, MA: Springer.
Brandimarte, L., Acquisti, A., & Loewenstein, G. (2013). Misplaced confidences: Privacy and the control paradox. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4, 340–347. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550612455931
Brehm, J. (1989). Psychological reactance: Theory and applications. Advances in Consumer Research, 16, 72–75.
Burke, M., Marlow, C., & Lento, T. (2009). Feed me: Motivating newcomer contribution in social network sites. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 945–954). New York, NY: ACM.
Chan, S. F., Barnes, B. R., & Fukukawa, K. (2016). Consumer control, dependency and satisfaction with online service. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 28, 594–615. https://doi.org/10.1108/APJML-09-2015-0134
Christofides, E., Muise, A., & Desmarais, S. (2010). Privacy and disclosure on Facebook: Youth and adults’ information disclosure and perceptions of privacy risks. Guelph: University of Guelph.
Debatin, B., Lovejoy, J. P., Horn, A.-K., & Hughes, B. N. (2009). Facebook and online privacy: Attitudes, behaviors, and unintended consequences. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 15, 83–108. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2009.01494.x
Dinev, T., & Hart, P. (2005). Internet privacy concerns and social awareness as determinants of intention to transact. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 10(2), 7–29. https://doi.org/10.2753/JEC1086-4415100201
Eagly, A. H., Wood, W., & Chaiken, S. (1978). Causal inferences about communicators and their effect on opinion change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 424. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1244
Einstein, M. (2016). Black ops advertising: Native ads, content marketing and the covert world of the digital sell. London: OR Books.
Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of Facebook “friends:” Social capital and college students’ use of online social network sites. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12, 1143–1168. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00367.x
Fransen, M. L., & Fennis, B. M. (2014). Comparing the impact of explicit and implicit resistance induction strategies on message persuasiveness. Journal of Communication, 64, 915–934. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcom.12118
Gangadharbatla, H. (2008). Facebook me: Collective self-esteem, need to belong, and internet self-efficacy as predictors of the igeneration’s attitudes toward social networking sites. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 8, 5–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/15252019.2008.10722138
Goldfarb, A., & Tucker, C. (2011). Online display advertising: Targeting and obtrusiveness. Marketing Science, 30, 389–404. https://doi.org/10.1287/mksc.1100.0583
Goldfarb, A., & Tucker, C. (2012). Shifts in privacy concerns. American Economic Review, 102, 349–353. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.102.3.349
Hawk, S. T., Hale, W. W., Raaijmakers, Q. A. W., & Meeus, W. (2008). Adolescents’ perceptions of privacy invasion in reaction to parental solicitation and control. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 28, 583–608. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431608317611
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Hayes, A. F., & Preacher, K. J. (2014). Statistical mediation analysis with a multicategorical independent variable. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 67, 451–470. https://doi.org/10.1111/bmsp.12028
Hill, W. W., & Beatty, S. E. (2011). A model of adolescents’ online consumer self-efficacy (OCSE). Journal of Business Research, 64, 1025–1033. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2010.11.008
Houghton, D. J., & Joinson, A. N. (2010). Privacy, social network sites, and social relations. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 28, 74–94. https://doi.org/10.1080/15228831003770775
Hudders, L., Pauw, P. D., Cauberghe, V., Panic, K., Zarouali, B., & Rozendaal, E. (2017). Shedding new light on how advertising literacy can affect children’s processing of embedded advertising formats: A future research agenda. Journal of Advertising, 0, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.2016.1269303
Hughes-Roberts, T. (2015a). Privacy as a secondary goal problem: An experiment examining control. Information and Computer Security, 23, 382–393. https://doi.org/10.1108/ICS-10-2014-0068
Hughes-Roberts, T. (2015b). Reminding users of their privacy at the point of interaction: The effect of privacy salience on disclosure behaviour. In T. Tryfonas & I. Askoxylakis (Eds.), Human aspects of information security, privacy, and trust (pp. 347–356). Cham: Springer.
Koufaris, M., Kambil, A., & Labarbera, P. A. (2001). Consumer behavior in web-based commerce: An empirical study. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 6(2), 115–138. https://doi.org/10.1080/10864415.2001.11044233
LaRose, R., & Rifon, N. J. (2007). Promoting i-safety: Effects of privacy warnings and privacy seals on risk assessment and online privacy behavior. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 41, 127–149. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6606.2006.00071.x
Lawlor, M.-A., Dunne, Á., & Rowley, J. (2016). Young consumers’ brand communications literacy in a social networking site context. European Journal of Marketing, 50, 2018–2040. https://doi.org/10.1108/EJM-06-2015-0395
Livingstone, S. (2006). Children’s privacy online: Experimenting with boundaries within and beyond the family. In R. E. Kraut, M. Brynin, & S. Kiesler (Eds.), Computers, phones, and the Internet: Domesticating information technology. Oxford; New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Livingstone, S. (2008). Taking risky opportunities in youthful content creation: Teenagers’ use of social networking sites for intimacy, privacy and self-expression. New Media & Society, 10, 393–411. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444808089415
Livingstone, S., & Helsper, E. (2010). Balancing opportunities and risks in teenagers’ use of the internet: The role of online skills and internet self-efficacy. New Media & Society, 12, 309–329.
Margulis, S. T. (1977). Conceptions of privacy: Current status and next steps. Journal of Social Issues, 33(3), 5–21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1977.tb01879.x
Margulis, S. T. (2003). Privacy as a social issue and behavioral concept. Journal of Social Issues, 59, 243–261. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-4560.00063
McDonald, A. M., & Cranor, L. F. (2010). Americans’ attitudes about internet behavioral advertising practices. In Proceedings of the 9th Annual ACM Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society (pp. 63–72). New York, NY: ACM.
Meuter, M. L., Bitner, M. J., Ostrom, A. L., & Brown, S. W. (2005). Choosing among alternative service delivery modes: An investigation of customer trial of self-service technologies. Journal of Marketing, 69(2), 61–83. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.126.96.36.199759
Morris, J. D., Choi, Y., & Ju, I. (2016). Are social marketing and advertising communications (SMACs) meaningful?: A survey of Facebook user emotional responses, source credibility, personal relevance, and perceived intrusiveness. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 37, 165–182. https://doi.org/10.1080/10641734.2016.1171182
Norberg, P. A., Horne, D. R., & Horne, D. A. (2007). The privacy paradox: Personal information disclosure intentions versus behaviors. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 41, 100–126. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6606.2006.00070.x
Nysveen, H., Pedersen, P. E., & Thorbjørnsen, H. (2005). Intentions to use mobile services: Antecedents and cross-service comparisons. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33, 330–346. https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070305276149
Ofcom. (2017). Children and Parents: Media Use and Attitudes Report. Retrieved from https://www.ofcom.org.uk/research-and-data/media-literacy-research/childrens/children-parents-2017
PEW Research Center. (2018). Teens, Social Media & Technology 2018 (pp. 1–19).
Quinn, J. M., & Wood, W. (2004). Forewarnings of influence appeals: Inducing resistance and acceptance. In E. S. Knowles & J. A. Linn (Eds.), Resistance and persuasion (pp. 193–213). Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Raines, A. M., Oglesby, M. E., Unruh, A. S., Capron, D. W., & Schmidt, N. B. (2014). Perceived control: A general psychological vulnerability factor for hoarding. Personality and Individual Differences, 56, 175–179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2013.09.005
Raynes-Goldie, K. (2010). Aliases, creeping, and wall cleaning: Understanding privacy in the age of Facebook. First Monday, 15(1). Rifon, N. J., LaRose, R., & Choi, S. M. (2005). Your privacy is sealed: Effects of web privacy seals on trust and personal disclosures. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 39, 339–362. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6606.2005.00018.x
Rose, S., Clark, M., Samouel, P., & Hair, N. (2012). Online customer experience in e-retailing: An empirical model of antecedents and outcomes. Journal of Retailing, 88, 308–322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretai.2012.03.001
Rosenblatt, S. (2014). Facebook’s privacy checkup helps you figure out who’s seeing what. CNET. Retrieved from https://www.cnet.com/news/facebook-launches-its-privacy-checkup/
Shimp, T. A., & Andrews, J. C. (2013). Advertising, promotion, and other aspects of integrated marketing communications (9th ed). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Smit, E. G., Van Noort, G., & Voorveld, H. A. M. (2014). Understanding online behavioural advertising: User knowledge, privacy concerns and online coping behaviour in Europe. Computers in Human Behavior, 32, 15–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.11.008
Smith, H. J., Milberg, S. J., & Burke, S. J. (1996). Information privacy: Measuring individuals’ concerns about organizational practices. MIS Quarterly, 20, 167–196. https://doi.org/10.2307/249477
Solove, D. J. (2002). Conceptualizing privacy. California Law Review, 90, 1087–1155. https://doi.org/10.2307/3481326
Solove, D. J. (2005). A Taxonomy of privacy. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 154, 477–564. https://doi.org/10.2307/40041279
Stutzman, F., Gross, R., & Acquisti, A. (2013). Silent listeners: The evolution of privacy and disclosure on Facebook. Journal of Privacy and Confidentiality, 4, 7-41. https://doi.org/10.29012/jpc.v4i2.620
Taylor, S. E. (1979). Hospital patient behavior: Reactance, helplessness, or control? Journal of Social Issues, 35(1), 156–184. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1979.tb00793.x
Trepte, S., & Reinecke, L. (Eds.). (2011). Privacy online. Berlin: Springer.Tucker, C. E. (2014). Social networks, personalized advertising, and privacy controls. Journal of Marketing Research, 51, 546–562. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmr.10.0355
Van Reijmersdal, E. A., Rozendaal, E., Smink, N., Noort, G. van, & Buijzen, M. (2017). Processes and effects of targeted online advertising among children. International Journal of Advertising, 36, 396–414. https://doi.org/10.1080/02650487.2016.1196904
Vitak, J. (2015). Balancing privacy concerns and impression management strategies on Facebook. In Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS).
Walrave, M., Poels, K., Antheunis, M. L., Van den Broeck, E., & Noort, G. van. (2016). Like or dislike? Adolescents’ responses to personalized social network site advertising. Journal of Marketing Communications. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/13527266.2016.1182938
Wang, N., Xu, H., & Grossklags, J. (2011). Third-party apps on Facebook: Privacy and the illusion of control. In Proceedings of the 5th ACM symposium on computer human interaction for management of information technology. New York, NY: ACM.
Wang, N., Zhang, B., Liu, B., & Jin, H. (2015). Investigating effects of control and ads awareness on Android users’ privacy behaviors and perceptions. In Proceedings of the 17th international conference on human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services (pp. 373–382). New York, NY: ACM.
Wei, M.-L., Fischer, E., & Main, K. J. (2008). An examination of the effects of activating persuasion knowledge on consumer response to brands engaging in covert marketing. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 27(1), 34–44. https://doi.org/10.1509/jppm.27.1.34
Westin, A. F. (1967). Privacy and freedom. New York, NY: Atheneum.
Williams, M., Nurse, J. R., & Creese, S. (2016). Privacy salience: Taxonomies and research opportunities. In A. Lehmann, D. Whitehouse, S. Fischer-Hübner, L. Fritsch, & C. Raab (Eds.), Privacy and identity management. Facing up to next steps (pp. 263–278). Cham: Springer.
Wojdynski, B. W. (2016). Native advertising: Engagement, deception, and implications for theory. In R. E. Brown, V. K. Jones, & M. Wang (Eds.), The new advertising: Branding, content and consumer relationships in a data-driven social media era (pp. 203–236). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger/ABC Clio.
Wolfe, M., & Laufer, R. S. (1974). The concept of privacy in childhood and adolescence. In S. T. Margulis (Ed.), Privacy (pp. 29–54). Stony Brook, NY: Environmental Design Research.
Xu, H. (2007). The effects of self-construal and perceived control on privacy concerns. In Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Information Systems. Montreal, Canada.
Xu, H., Dinev, T., Smith, H. J., & Hart, P. (2008). Examining the formation of individual’s privacy concerns: Toward an integrative view. ICIS 2008 Proceedings, paper 6.
Xu, H., Teo, H.-H., Tan, B. C. Y., & Agarwal, R. (2012). Research note - effects of individual self-protection, industry self-regulation, and government regulation on privacy concerns: A study of location-based services. Information Systems Research, 23, 1342–1363. https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.1120.0416
Yao, M. Z., & Linz, D. G. (2008). Predicting self-protections of online privacy. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, 615–617. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2007.0208
Youn, S. (2009). Determinants of online privacy concern and its influence on privacy protection behaviors among young adolescents. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 43, 389–418. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6606.2009.01146.x
Young, A. L., & Quan-Haase, A. (2013). Privacy protection strategies on Facebook. Information, Communication & Society, 16, 479–500. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2013.777757
Zarouali, B., Poels, K., Walrave, M., & Ponnet, K. (2018). The impact of regulatory focus on adolescents’ evaluation of targeted advertising on social networking sites. International Journal of Advertising. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/02650487.2017.1419416
Zarouali, B., Ponnet, K., Walrave, M., & Poels, K. (2017). “Do you like cookies?” Adolescents’ skeptical processing of retargeted Facebook-ads and the moderating role of privacy concern and a textual debriefing. Computers in Human Behavior, 69, 157–165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.11.050
1. Advances in Advertising Research (Vol. XII)
Joanna Strycharz, Claire M. Segijn
ISBN 978-3-658-40429-1 Chapter 8, first page: 107, year: 2023
2. Privacy concerns and benefits of engagement with social media-enabled apps: A privacy calculus perspective
Mohsen Jozani, Emmanuel Ayaburi, Myung Ko, Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo
Computers in Human Behavior vol: 107, first page: 106260, year: 2020
3. With Clear Intention—An Ethical Responsibility Model for Robot Governance
Frontiers in Computer Science vol: 4, year: 2022
4. Insights in adolescents’ advertising literacy, perceptions and responses regarding sponsored influencer videos and disclosures
Sophia Van Dam, Eva Van Reijmersdal
Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace vol: 13, issue: 2, year: 2019
5. Proceedings of the 2023 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Nele Borgert, Oliver D. Reithmaier, Luisa Jansen, Larina Hillemann, Ian Hussey, Malte Elson
ISBN 9781450394215 first page: 1, year: 2023
6. Situational user consent for access to personal Information: Does purpose make any difference?
Telematics and Informatics vol: 48, first page: 101341, year: 2020
7. The Impact of Health Information Privacy Concerns on Engagement and Payment Behaviors in Online Health Communities
Banggang Wu, Peng Luo, Mengqiao Li, Xiao Hu
Frontiers in Psychology vol: 13, year: 2022
8. Exploring Teenagers’ Folk Theories and Coping Strategies Regarding Commercial Data Collection and Personalized Advertising
Sanne Holvoet, Steffi De Jans, Ralf De Wolf, Liselot Hudders, Laura Herrewijn
Media and Communication vol: 10, issue: 1, first page: 317, year: 2022
9. Predicting Teens' Privacy Management and Attitude Toward Data Protection on Social Media
Ralf De Wolf, Marijn Martens, Mariek Vanden Abeele, Lieven De Marez
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking vol: 26, issue: 3, first page: 153, year: 2023
10. Impact of the normativeness and intelligibility of privacy interpretation information on the willingness to accept targeted advertising —A cognitive load perspective
Qiuhua Zhu, Rui Sun, Yuan Yuan
Current Psychology year: 2023
11. How teens negotiate privacy on social media proactively and reactively
Hui-Lien Chou, Chien Chou
New Media & Society vol: 25, issue: 6, first page: 1290, year: 2023
12. Consumers’ persuasion knowledge of algorithms in social media advertising: identifying consumer groups based on awareness, appropriateness, and coping ability
Hilde A. M. Voorveld, Corine S. Meppelink, Sophie C. Boerman
International Journal of Advertising first page: 1, year: 2023
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Copyright © 2018 Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace