An experimental test of the effects of online and face-to-face feedback on self-esteem
This study investigated the effect of receiving confirming vs. disconfirming feedback to individuals’ self-disclosure on their self-esteem, the role of giving reciprocal feedback in this relationship, and how these effects differ between online and face-to-face communication. Using a two (communication mode: online vs. face-to-face) by two (feedback valence: confirming vs. disconfirming) between-subjects experiment, we found that feedback had a significant indirect effect on self-esteem, through the receiver’s reciprocal feedback. This indirect effect of feedback differed in online communication from offline: In online communication, participants reciprocated negative feedback when they received it, more than in face-to-face communication. The reciprocal feedback enhanced their self-esteem in online communication, but not in face-to-face communication. Although people tend to respond more negatively to negative comments in online conversations, the process, overall, boosts rather than hinders their self-esteem.
Online communication; feedback; self-esteem; reciprocal feedback; online self-disclosure
Altman, I., & Taylor, D. A. (1973). Social penetration: The development of interpersonal relationships. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Amin, N., Foa, E. B., & Coles, M. E. (1998). Negative interpretation bias in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 945-957. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(98)00060-6
Antheunis, M. L., Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2007). Computer-mediated communication and interpersonal attraction: An experimental test of two explanatory hypotheses. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 10, 831-836. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2007.9945
Archer, R. L., Berg, J. H., & Runge, T. E. (1980). Active and passive observers’ attraction to a self-disclosing other. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 16, 130-145. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031(80)90004-9
Aron, A., Melinat, E., Aron, E. N., Vallone, R. D., & Bator, R. J. (1997). The experimental generation of interpersonal closeness: A procedure and some preliminary findings. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 363-377. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167297234003
Bargh, J. A., McKenna, K. Y. A., & Fitzsimons, G. M. (2002). Can you see the real me? Activation and expression of the “true self” on the Internet. Journal of Social Issues, 58, 33-48. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-4560.00247
Baumeister, R. F., Bratslavsky, E., Finkenauer, C., & Vohs, K. D. (2001). Bad is stronger than good. Review of General Psychology, 5, 323-370. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2622.214.171.1243
Baumeister, R.F., Campbell, J.D., Krueger, J.I., & Vohs, K.D. (2003). Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles? Psychological Science in Public Interest, 4, 1-44. https://doi.org/10.1111/1529-1006.01431
Bazarova, N. N. (2012). Public intimacy: Disclosure interpretation and social judgments on Facebook. Journal of Communication, 62, 815-832. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2012.01664.x
Bem, D. J. (1972). Self-perception theory. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 6, 1-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0065-2601(08)60024-6
Berscheid, E., Boye, D., & Walster, E. (1968). Retaliation as a means of restoring equity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10, 370-376. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0026817
Bies, R. J., Tripp, T. M., & Kramer, R. M. (Eds.). (1997). At the breaking point: Cognitive and social dynamics of revenge in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Birnie, C., & Holmberg, D. (2007). But what will they say? The impact of receiving feedback on women's relationship narratives. Narrative Inquiry, 17, 231-258. https://doi.org/10.1075/ni.17.2.05bir
Carlsmith, K. M., Wilson, T. D., & Gilbert, D. T. (2008). The paradoxical consequences of revenge. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 1316–1324. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012165
Carr, C. T., & Foreman, A. C. (2016). Identity shift III: Effects of publicness of feedback and relational closeness in computer-mediated communication. Media Psychology, 19, 334–358. https://doi.org/10.1080/15213269.2015.1049276
Chaiken, S., & Baldwin, M. W. (1981). Affective-cognitive consistency and the effect of salient behavioral information on the self-perception of attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.199
Cialdini, R. B., & James, L. (2009). Influence: Science and practice (Vol. 4). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
Cissna, K. N., & Sieburg, E. (1981). Patterns of interactional confirmation and disconfirmation. In C. Wilder-Mott & J. H. Weakland (Eds.), Rigor and imagination: Essays from the legacy of Gregory Bateson (pp. 253-282). New York, NY: Praeger.
Collins, N. L., & Miller, L. C. (1994). Self-disclosure and liking: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 457-475. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.116.3.457
Diener, E. (1980). Deindividuation: The absence of self-awareness and selfregulation in group members. In P. Paulus (Ed.), The psychology of group influence (pp. 209-242). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Fehr, E., & Gächter, S. (2000). Fairness and retaliation: The economics of reciprocity. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14, 159-181. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.14.3.159
Giacalone, R. A., & Greenberg, J. (1997). Antisocial behavior in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Gollwitzer, M., & Denzler, M. (2009). What makes revenge sweet: Seeing the offender suffer or delivering a message? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 840-844. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2009.03.001
Gonzales, A. L., & Hancock, J. T. (2008). Identity shift in computer-mediated environments. Media Psychology, 11, 167-185. https://doi.org/10.1080/15213260802023433
Gonzales, A. L. (2014). Text-based communication influences self-esteem more than face-to-face or cellphone communication. Computers in Human Behavior, 39, 197-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.07.026
Greitemeyer, T., Mügge, D. O., & Bollermann, I. (2014). Having responsive Facebook friends affects the satisfaction of psychological needs more than having many Facebook friends. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 36, 252-258. https://doi.org/10.1080/01973533.2014.900619
Gruenenfelder-Steiger, A. E., Harris, M. A., & Fend, H. A. (2016). Subjective and objective peer approval evaluations and self-esteem development: A test of reciprocal, prospective, and long-term effects. Developmental Psychology, 52, 1563-1577. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000147
Harter, S. (2012a). The construction of the self: A developmental perspective (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Harter, S. (2012b). Manual for the self-perception profile for adolescents. Denver, CO: University of Denver.
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Jiang, L. C., Bazarova, N. N., & Hancock, J. T. (2011). The disclosure–intimacy link in computer-mediated communication: An attributional extension of the hyperpersonal model. Human Communication Research, 37, 58-77. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.2010.01393.x
Jourard, S. M. (1964). The transparent self: Self-disclosure and well-being. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Jourard, S. M., & Lasakow, P. (1958). Some factors in self-disclosure. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 56, 91-98. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0043357
Kiesler, S., Siegel, J., & McGuire, T. W. (1984). Social psychological effects of computer-mediated communication. American Psychologist, 39, 1123-1134. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.39.10.1123
Kiesler, S., Zubrow, D., Moses, A., & Geller, V. (1985). Affect in computer-mediated communication: An experiment in synchronous terminal-to-terminal discussion. Human-Computer Interaction, 1, 77-104. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327051hci0101_3
Knapp, M. L. (1978) Social intercourse: From greeting to goodbye. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Konrath, S. (2012). The empathy paradox: Increasing disconnection in the age of increasing connection. In R. Luppicini (Ed.), Handbook of research on technoself: Identity in a technological society (pp. 204-228). IGI Global.
Kruger, J., Epley, N., Parker, J., & Ng, Z.-W. (2005). Egocentrism over e-mail: Can we communicate as well as we think? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 925-936. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.525
Leary, M. R., Tambor, E. S., Terdal, S. K., & Downs, D. L. (1995). Self-esteem as an interpersonal monitor: The sociometer hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 518-530. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2068
Middaugh, E., Bowyer, B., & Kahne, J. (2017). U suk! Participatory media and youth experiences with political discourse. Youth & Society, 49, 902-922. https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118x16655246
Miller, L. C., Berg, J. H., & Archer, R. L. (1983). Openers: Individuals who elicit intimate self-disclosure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 1234-1244. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.114
Miura, A., & Yamashita, K. (2007). Psychological and social influences on blog writing: An online survey of blog authors in Japan. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12, 1452-1471. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00381.x
Orengo Castellá, V., Zornoza Abad, A. M., Prieto Alonso, F., & Peiró Silla, J. M. (2000). The influence of familiarity among group members, group atmosphere and assertiveness on uninhibited behavior through three different communication media. Computers in Human Behavior, 16, 141-159. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0747-5632(00)00012-1
Reis, H. T., & Shaver, P. (1988). Intimacy as an interpersonal process. In S. Duck, D. F. Hay, S. E. Hobfoll, W. Ickes, & B. M. Montgomery (Eds.), Handbook of personal relationships: Theory, research and interventions (pp. 367–389). Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Rubin, Z., & Shenker, S. (1978). Friendship, proximity, and self-disclosure. Journal of Personality, 46, 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1978.tb00599.x
Sedikides, C., Campbell, W. K., Reader, G., & Elliot, A. J. (1999). The relationship closeness induction task. Representative Research in Social Psychology, 23, 1-4.
Siegel, J., Dubrovsky, V., Kiesler, S., & McGuire, T. W. (1986). Group processes in computer-mediated communication. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 37, 157-187. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(86)90050-6
Snyder, M., Tanke, E. D., & Berscheid, E. (1977). Social perception and interpersonal behavior: On the self-fulfilling nature of social stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 656-666. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1686
Sowislo, J. F., & Orth, U. (2013). Does low self-esteem predict depression and anxiety? A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 213-240. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028931
Srivastava, S., & Beer, J. S. (2005). How self-evaluations relate to being liked by others: Integrating sociometer and attachment perspectives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 966-977. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1246
Suler, J. (2004). The online disinhibition effect. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7, 321-326. https://doi.org/10.1089/1094931041291295
Taylor, D. A., & Altman, I. (1966). Intimacy-scaled stimuli for use in studies of interpersonal relations. Psychological Reports, 19, 729-730. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19126.96.36.1999
Thomaes, S., Reijntjes, A., Orobio de Castro, B., Bushman, B. J., Poorthuis, A., & Telch, M. J. (2010). I like me if you like me: On the interpersonal modulation and regulation of preadolescents’ state self-esteem. Child Development, 81, 811-825. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01435.x
Tidd, K. L., & Lockard, J. S. (1978). Monetary significance of the affiliative smile: A case for reciprocal altruism. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 11, 344-346. https://doi.org/10.3758/bf03336849
Valkenburg, P. M., Koutamanis, M., Vossen, H.G.M. (2017). The concurrent and longitudinal relationships between adolescents’ use of social network sites and their self-esteem. Computers in Human Behavior, 76, 35-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.07.008
Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2009a). The effects of instant messaging on the quality of adolescents’ existing friendships: A longitudinal study. Journal of Communication, 59, 79-97. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.01405.x
Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2009b). Social consequences of the Internet for adolescents: A decade of research. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01595.x
Valkenburg, P. M., Peter, J., & Schouten, A. P. (2006). Friend networking sites and their relationship to adolescents’ well-being and social-esteem. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 9, 585-590. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2006.9.584
Walther, J. B. (1996). Computer-mediated communication: Impersonal, interpersonal, and hyperpersonal interaction. Communication Research, 23, 3-43. https://doi.org/10.1177/009365096023001001
Walther, J. B. (2011). Theories of computer-mediated communication and interpersonal relations. In M. L. Knapp & J. A. Daly (Eds.), The handbook of interpersonal communication (4th ed., pp. 443-479). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.Walther, J. B., DeAndrea, D. C., & Tong, S. T. (2010). Computer-mediated communication versus vocal communication in the attenuation of preinteraction impressions. Media Psychology, 13, 364-386. https://doi.org/10.1080/15213269.2010.524913
Walther, J. B., Kashian, N., Jang, J.-W., & Shin, S. Y. (2016). Overattribution of liking in computer-mediated communication: Partners infer the results of their own influence as their partners’ affection. Communication Research, 43, 372-390. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650214565898
Walther, J. B., Liang, Y. J., DeAndrea, D. C., Tong, S. T., Carr, C. T., Spottswood, E. L., & Amichai-Hamburger, Y. (2011). The effect of feedback on identity shift in computer-mediated communication. Media Psychology, 14, 1-26. https://doi.org/10.1080/15213269.2010.547832
Walther, J. B., Loh, T., & Granka, L. (2005). Let me count the ways: The interchange of verbal and nonverbal cues in computer-mediated and face-to-face affinity. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 24, 36-65. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X04273036
Walther, J. B., Van Der Heide, B., Tong, S. T., Carr, C. T., & Atkin, C. K. (2010). Effects of interpersonal goals on inadvertent intrapersonal influence in computer-mediated communication. Human Communication Research, 36, 323-347. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.2010.01378.x
1. The Relationship Between Self-Concept and Online Self-Presentation in Adults
Nicole Strimbu, Michael O'Connell
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking vol: 22, issue: 12, first page: 804, year: 2019
2. Effect of Social Networking Sites on the Quality of Life of College Students: A Cross-Sectional Study from a City in North India
Neeru Saini, Garima Sangwan, Madhur Verma, Adarsh Kohli, Manmeet Kaur, P. V. M. Lakshmi
The Scientific World Journal vol: 2020, first page: 1, year: 2020
3. The benefits of supporting others online – How online communication shapes the provision of support and its relationship with wellbeing
Computers in Human Behavior vol: 140, first page: 107568, year: 2023
4. Evaluation of Online and Offline Communication Skills in Higher Education
Cristina Cîrtiță-Buzoianu, Katerina Tzafilkou, Liliana Mâță, Brîndușa-Mariana Amălăncei
Sustainability vol: 14, issue: 24, first page: 17039, year: 2022
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Copyright © 2017 Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace