Types of smartphone usage and relations with problematic smartphone behaviors: The role of content consumption vs. social smartphone use

Jon D. Elhai, Brian J. Hall, Jason C. Levine, Robert D. Dvorak

Abstract

Little previous research has clarified which types of smartphone use are related to problematic smartphone behaviors. We sampled 309 community participants online to understand the role of content consumption vs. social smartphone use in relation to specific problematic smartphone behaviors. Bivariate correlations indicated mostly significant relationships between problematic smartphone behaviors and both process and social usage – but with stronger correlations for process usage. Regression analyses, controlling for age and gender, demonstrated that problematic smartphone-related overuse was significantly associated with process smartphone usage, and to a lesser extent - social usage. Positive anticipation problem behaviors were related to process and social usage. Daily life disturbances from a smartphone were inversely related to process and social usage. Results provide insight into the types of problem smartphone behaviors associated with specific uses and gratifications from a smartphone.

Bibliographic citation

Elhai, J. D., Hall, B. J., Levine, J. C., & Dvorak, R. D. (2017). Types of smartphone usage and relations with problematic smartphone behaviors: The role of content consumption vs. social smartphone use. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 11(2), article 3. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5817/CP2017-2-3

Keywords

Information technology; mobile phones; internet addiction; gratification; social networks

Full Text:

HTML

References

Show references Hide references

Blumler, J. G. (1979). The role of theory in uses and gratifications studies. Communication Research, 6, 9-36. https://doi.org/10.1177/009365027900600102

Blumler, J. G., & Katz, E. (1974). The uses of mass communications: Current perspectives on gratifications research. Beverly Hills, California: Sage.

Cazzulino, F., Burke, R. V., Muller, V., Arbogast, H., & Upperman, J. S. (2014). Cell phones and young drivers: A systematic review regarding the association between psychological factors and prevention. Traffic Injury Prevention, 15, 234-242. https://doi.org/10.1080/15389588.2013.822075

Chou, C., & Hsiao, M.-C. (2000). Internet addiction, usage, gratification, and pleasure experience: The Taiwan college students' case. Computers & Education, 35, 65-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0360-1315(00)00019-1

Demirci, K., Akgonul, M., & Akpinar, A. (2015). Relationship of smartphone use severity with sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 4, 85-92. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.4.2015.010

Dhir, A., Chen, S., & Nieminen, M. (2015). Predicting adolescent Internet addiction: The roles of demographics, technology accessibility, unwillingness to communicate and sought Internet gratifications. Computers in Human Behavior, 51, 24-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.04.056

Elhai, J. D., Dvorak, R. D., Levine, J. C., & Hall, B. J. (2017). Problematic smartphone use: A conceptual overview and systematic review of relations with anxiety and depression psychopathology. Journal of Affective Disorders, 207, 251-259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2016.08.030

Elhai, J. D., Levine, J. C., Dvorak, R. D., & Hall, B. J. (2016). Fear of missing out, need for touch, anxiety and depression are related to problematic smartphone use. Computers in Human Behavior, 63, 509-516. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.05.079

Elhai, J. D., Levine, J. C., Dvorak, R. D., & Hall, B. J. (2017). Non-social features of smartphone use are most related to depression, anxiety and problematic smartphone use. Computers in Human Behavior, 69, 75-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.12.023

Eyvazlou, M., Zarei, E., Rahimi, A., & Abazari, M. (2016). Association between overuse of mobile phones on quality of sleep and general health among occupational health and safety students. Chronobiology International, 33, 293-300. https://doi.org/10.3109/07420528.2015.1135933

Godwin-Jones, R. (2011). Mobile apps for language learning. Language Learning and Technology, 15(2), 2-11.

Gunuc, S. (2015). Relationships and associations between video game and Internet addictions: Is tolerance a symptom seen in all conditions. Computers in Human Behavior, 49, 517-525. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.03.063

Jeong, S.-H., Kim, H., Yum, J.-Y., & Hwang, Y. (2016). What type of content are smartphone users addicted to?: SNS vs. games. Computers in Human Behavior, 54, 10-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.07.035

Kalkbrenner, J., & McCampbell, A. (2011). The advent of smartphones: A study on the effect of handheld electronics on personal and professional productivity. Journal of Applied Global Research, 4, 1-9.

Kardefelt-Winther, D. (2014). A conceptual and methodological critique of internet addiction research: Towards a model of compensatory internet use. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 351-354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.10.059

Kawachi, I., & Berkman, L. F. (2001). Social ties and mental health. Journal of Urban Health, 78, 458-467. https://doi.org/10.1093/jurban/78.3.458

Kim, J., & Haridakis, P. M. (2009). The role of internet user characteristics and motives in explaining three dimensions of internet addiction. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 14, 988-1015. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2009.01478.x

Kim, J., Seo, M., & David, P. (2015). Alleviating depression only to become problematic mobile phone users: Can face-to-face communication be the antidote? Computers in Human Behavior, 51, 440-447. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.05.030

Kuss, D. J., Griffiths, M. D., & Binder, J. F. (2013). Internet addiction in students: Prevalence and risk factors. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 959-966. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.12.024

Kwon, M., Lee, J. Y., Won, W. Y., Park, J. W., Min, J. A., Hahn, C., . . . Kim, D. J. (2013). Development and validation of a smartphone addiction scale (SAS). PLoS One, 8(2), e56936. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056936

Lee, U., Song, J., Lee, J., Ko, M., Lee, C., Kim, Y., . . . Chung, K.-M. (2014, April). Hooked on smartphones: An exploratory study on smartphone overuse among college students. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Toronto, Ontario. Retrieved from http://koasas.kaist.ac.kr/bitstream/10203/191367/1/81485.pdf

Long, J., Liu, T. Q., Liao, Y. H., Qi, C., He, H. Y., Chen, S. B., & Billieux, J. (2016). Prevalence and correlates of problematic smartphone use in a large random sample of Chinese undergraduates. BMC Psychiatry, 16, 408. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-016-1083-3

Lopez-Fernandez, O., Honrubia-Serrano, L., Freixa-Blanxart, M., & Gibson, W. (2014). Prevalence of problematic mobile phone use in British adolescents. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17, 91-98. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2012.0260

Lu, X., Watanabe, J., Liu, Q., Uji, M., Shono, M., & Kitamura, T. (2011). Internet and mobile phone text-messaging dependency: Factor structure and correlation with dysphoric mood among Japanese adults. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 1702-1709. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2011.02.009

Oulasvirta, A., Rattenbury, T., Ma, L., & Raita, E. (2012). Habits make smartphone use more pervasive. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 16, 105-114. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00779-011-0412-2

Ozdalga, E., Ozdalga, A., & Ahuja, N. (2012). The smartphone in medicine: A review of current and potential use among physicians and students. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 14(5), e128. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir

Park, K. G., Han, S., & Kaid, L. L. (2012). Does social networking service usage mediate the association between smartphone usage and social capital? New Media & Society, 15, 1077-1093. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444812465927

Park, N., Kim, Y.-C., Shon, H. Y., & Shim, H. (2013). Factors influencing smartphone use and dependency in South Korea. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 1763-1770. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.02.008

Rebold, M. J., Sheehan, T., Dirlam, M., Maldonado, T., & O'Donnell, D. (2016). The impact of cell phone texting on the amount of time spent exercising at different intensities. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 167-171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.09.005

Robinson, T. E., & Berridge, K. C. (2000). The psychology and neurobiology of addiction: An incentive-sensitization view. Addiction, 95(Suppl2), S91-S117. https://doi.org/10.1080/09652140050111681

Rozgonjuk, D., Rosenvald, V., Janno, S., & Täht, K. (2016). Developing a shorter version of the Estonian Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (E-SAPS18). Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 10(4), article 4. https://doi.org/10.5817/cp2016-4-4

Seo, D. G., Park, Y., Kim, M. K., & Park, J. (2016). Mobile phone dependency and its impacts on adolescents’ social and academic behaviors. Computers in Human Behavior, 63, 282-292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.05.026

Shan, Z., Deng, G., Li, J., Li, Y., Zhang, Y., & Zhao, Q. (2013). Correlational analysis of neck/shoulder pain and low back pain with the use of digital products, physical activity and psychological status among adolescents in Shanghai. PLoS One, 8(10), e78109. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078109

Shapiro, D. N., Chandler, J., & Mueller, P. A. (2013). Using Mechanical Turk to study clinical populations. Clinical Psychological Science, 1, 213-220. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702612469015

Song, I., LaRose, R., Eastin, M. S., & Lin, C. A. (2004). Internet gratifications and Internet addiction: On the uses and abuses of new media. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 7, 384-394. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2004.7.384

Steelman, Z. R., Hammer, B. I., & Limayem, M. (2014). Data collection in the digital age: Innovative alternatives to student samples. MIS Quarterly, 38, 355-378.

Thompson, L. L., Rivara, F. P., Ayyagari, R. C., & Ebel, B. E. (2013). Impact of social and technological distraction on pedestrian crossing behaviour: An observational study. Injury Prevention, 19, 232-237. https://doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2012-040601

Trepte, S., Reinecke, L., & Juechems, K. (2012). The social side of gaming: How playing online computer games creates online and offline social support. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 832-839. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2011.12.003

van Deursen, A. J. A. M., Bolle, C. L., Hegner, S. M., & Kommers, P. A. M. (2015). Modeling habitual and addictive smartphone behavior: The role of smartphone usage types, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, age, and gender. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 411-420. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.12.039

Wang, Z., Tchernev, J. M., & Solloway, T. (2012). A dynamic longitudinal examination of social media use, needs, and gratifications among college students. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 1829-1839. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.05.001

Wang, J.-L., Wang, H.-Z., Gaskin, J., & Wang, L.-H. (2015). The role of stress and motivation in problematic smartphone use among college students. Computers in Human Behavior, 53, 181-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.07.005

West, R., & Turner, L. (2007). Introducing communication theory. New York City, New York: McGraw Hill.

Wise, R. A., & Koob, G. F. (2014). The development and maintenance of drug addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology, 39, 254-262. https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2013.261

Xie, Y., Szeto, G. P., Dai, J., & Madeleine, P. (2016). A comparison of muscle activity in using touchscreen smartphone among young people with and without chronic neck-shoulder pain. Ergonomics, 59, 61-72. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2015.1056237

Yang, S. C., & Tung, C.-J. (2007). Comparison of Internet addicts and non-addicts in Taiwanese high school. Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 79-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2004.03.037

Zhitomirsky-Geffet, M., & Blau, M. (2016). Cross-generational analysis of predictive factors of addictive behavior in smartphone usage. Computers in Human Behavior, 64, 682-693. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.07.061

https://doi.org/10.5817/CP2017-2-3