How does risk mediate the ability of adolescents and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities to live a normal life by using the Internet?
Special issue: Internet use and disability
The focus of this position paper is Internet use by adolescents and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Drawing on existing literature in the field we will identify problems with and gaps in the current research. Our review is framed by three main questions: What constitutes a ‘normal’ life for adolescents and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities? What constitutes ‘normal’ use of the Internet for adolescents and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities? How does risk mediate the ability of adolescents and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities to live a normal life by using the Internet? The key focus of this review is the complex relationship between adolescents and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities and those providing support; how they negotiate access to and use of the Internet and how perceptions regarding risk and normalcy mediate this negotiation. As a result of this review we will argue that identified gaps and problems in the research field need to be addressed by expanding both methodological and conceptual approaches. In particular we will propose the need for more in-depth qualitative research that is inclusive in nature. We will also propose that an adapted positive risk-taking framework might be useful in framing the design, implementation and analysis of future research.
intellectual and developmental disabilities; adolescents; adults; Internet; digital inclusion; risk; positive risk-taking
Alaszewski, A., & Alaszewski, H. (2002). Towards the creative management of risk: Perceptions, practices and policies. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30, 56-62. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1468-3156.2001.00153.x
Alquatani, H. H., & Schoenfield, N. A. (2014). Teaching cooking skills to young women with mild intellectual disability: The effectiveness of Internet websites. Current Issues in Education, 17, 1-10.
Bannon, S., McGlynn, T., McKenzie, K., & Quayle, E. (2015). The Internet and young people with additional support needs (ASN): Risk and safety. Computers in Human Behavior, 53, 495-503. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.12.057
BECTA (2001). The digital divide: A discussion paper. Retrieved from http://partners.becta.org.uk/page_documents/research/digitaldivide.pdf
Buijs P. C. M., Boot E., Shugar A., Fung W. L. A., & Bassett A. S. (2016). Internet safety issues for adolescents and adults with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 30, 416-418. https://doi.org/10.1111/jar.12250
Butler, L., & Bayne, H. (2000). Developing online resources for adults with intellectual disabilities. Paper presented at Networking 2000 Conference, Australia. Retrieved from http://www.flexiblelearning.net.au/nw2000/talkback/p05.htm
Carey, A. C., Friedman, M., & Bryen, D. N. (2005). Use of electronic technologies by people with intellectual disabilities. Mental Retardation, 43, 322-333.
Chadwick, D. D. (2016, June). Restriction, risk and reward? The digital inclusion of people with an intellectual disability (keynote presentation). Transitions Across the Life Course of People with Disabilities: Experiences, Opportunities and Strategies, Off- and Online. International Workshop, University of Umea, Sweden.
Chadwick D., Fullwood C., & Wesson C. (2012). Intellectual disability, identity and the Internet. In: R. Luppicini (Ed.), Handbook of research on techno-self: Identity in a technological society (pp. 229-254). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Chadwick, D. D., Quinn, S., & Fullwood, C. (2017). Perceptions of the risk and benefits of Internet access and use by people with intellectual disabilities. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45, 21-31. https://doi.org/10.1111/bld.12170
Chadwick, D. D., Wesson, C., & Fullwood, C. (2013). Internet access by people with intellectual disabilities: inequalities and opportunities. Future Internet - Special Issue "Inequality in the Digital Environment", 5, 376-397. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi5030376
Chadwick, D., & Wesson, C. (2016). Digital inclusion and disability. In A. Attrill & C. Fullwood (Eds.), Applied cyberpsychology: Practical application of cyberpsychological theory and research. Chennai, India: Palgrave Macmillan.
Davis, R. A., Flett, G. L., & Besser, A. (2002). Validation of a new scale for measuring problematic Internet use: Implications for pre-employment screening. CyberPsychology & Behaviour, 5, 331-345. https://doi.org/10.1089/109493102760275581
Department of Health. (2005). Independence, well-being and choice: Our vision for the future of social care for adults in England. London: HMSO.
Didden, R., Scholte, R. H. J., Korzilius, H., DeMoor, J. M. H., Vermeulen, A., O’Reilly, M., Lang, R., & Lancioni, G. E. (2009). Cyberbullying along students with intellectual and developmental disability in special education settings. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 12, 146-151. https://doi.org/10.1080/17518420902971356
Fiser, K. (2012). Parental perspectives on young adults with Down syndrome and online social networking sites (2012). Rehabilitation, Human Resources and Communication Disorders Undergraduate Honors Theses. Paper 9.
Goodley, D. (2005). Empowerment, self-advocacy and resilience, Journal Intellectual Disabilities, 9, 333-343. https://doi.org/10.1177/1744629505059267
Grant, M. J., & Booth, A. (2009). A typology of reviews: An analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health Information and Libraries Journal, 26, 91–108. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-1842.2009.00848.x
Hegarty, J. R. (1998). INTERCHANGE - promoting international friendship-links for people with intellectual impairment. In I. Placencia-Porrero & E. Ballabio (Eds.), Improving the quality of life for the European Citizen (pp. 179-184). Amsterdam: IOS Press.
Holmes, K. M., & O'Loughlin, N. (2014). The experiences of people with learning disabilities on social networking sites. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42, 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1111/bld.12001
Jaeger, P. T. (2015). Disability, human rights, and social justice: The ongoing struggle for online accessibility and equality. First Monday, 20, 9. Retrieved from: http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/rt/printerFriendly/6164/4898
Jay, P. (1979). Report of the Committee Enquiry into Mental Handicap Nursing and Care. London: HMSO.
Jerome, J., Frantino, E., & Sturmey, P. (2007). The effects of errorless learning and backward chaining on the acquisition of Internet skills in adults with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavioural Analysis, 40, 185-189. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2007.41-06
Johnson, R., & Hegarty, J.R. (2003).Websites as educational motivators for adults with learning disability. British Journal of Educational Technology, 34, 479-486. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8535.00344
Katz, E., Blumler, J., & Gurevitch, M. (1974). Utilization of mass communication by the individual. In J. Blumler & E. Katz (Eds.), The uses of mass communication: Current perspectives on gratifications research (pp. 19–34). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Kydlund, F. K., Molka-Danielson, J., & Balandin, S. (2012). Examining the use of social media tool "Flickr" for impact on loneliness for people with intellectual disability. In NOKOBIT 2012 : Proceedings of the 2012 Norsk konferanse for organisasjoners bruk av informasjonsteknologi (pp. 253-264). Retrieved from: http://dro.deakin.edu.au/view/DU:30062177
Livingston, S., & Haddon, L. (2009). EU Kids Online final report. LSE, London: EU Kids Online.
Livingstone, S., Mascheroni, G., & Staksrud, E. (2015). Developing a framework for researching children’s online risks and opportunities in Europe. LSE, London: EU Kids Online. Retrieved from: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/64470/
Löfgren-Mårtenson, L. (2008). Love in cyberspace: Swedish young people with intellectual disabilities and the Internet. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 10, 125-138. https://doi.org/10.1080/15017410701758005
Löfgren-Mårtenson, L., Sorbring, E., & Molin, M. (2015) “T@ngled up in Blue”: Views of parents and professionals on Internet use for sexual purposes among young people with intellectual disabilities. Sex Disabil, 33, 533-544. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11195-015-9415-7
Lough, E., & Fisher, M.H. (2016a). Internet use and online safety in adults with Williams syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 60, 1020-1030. https://doi.org/10.1111/jir.12281
Lough, E., & Fisher, M. (2016b). Parent and Self-Report Ratings on the Perceived Levels of Social Vulnerability of Adults with Williams Syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 3424-3433. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-016-2885-3
McClimens, A., & Gordon, F. (2009). People with intellectual disabilities as bloggers: What’s social capital got to do with it anyway? Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 15, 19-30. https://doi.org/10.1177/1744629509104486
Milner, P., & Mirfin-Veitch, B. (2012). “I am here”: The Article 19 Project. CCS Disability Action & Donald Beasley Institute.
Moisey, S. D. (2001). Virtual community for adults with developmental disabilities and their families. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 2(1). Retrieved from: http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/39/68
Moisey, S., & van de Keere, R. (2007). Inclusion and the Internet: Teaching adults with developmental disabilities to use Information and Communication Technologies. Developmental Disabilities Bulletin, 35, 72-102.
Molin, M., Sorbring, E., Löfgren-Mårtenson, E. (2015). Teachers’ and parents views on the Internet and social media usage by pupils with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 19, 22-23. https://doi.org/10.1177/1744629514563558
Morgan, S. (2004, October). Positive risk taking: An idea whose time has come. Health Care Risk Report. Retrieved from: http://static1.1.sqspcdn.com/static/f/586382/9538512/1290507680737/OpenMind-PositiveRiskTaking.pdf?token=ElVKhX4Soz6TlFbuppAGcJTsZVI%3D
Näslund, R., & Gardelli, A. (2013). ‘I know, I can, I will try’: Youths and adults with intellectual disabilities in Sweden using information and communication technology in their everyday life. Disability and Society, 28, 28-40. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2012.695528
Nind, M. (2014). What is Inclusive Research? London: Bloomsbury Academic.
Normand, C. L., & Sallafranque St Louis, F. (2016) Cybervictimisation of young people with an intellectual or developmental disability: Risks specific to sexual solicitation. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 29, 99-110. https://doi.org/10.1111/jar.12163
Perske, R. (1972). The dignity of risk. In: W. Wolfensberger., B. Nirje., S. Olansky., R. Perske, & P. Roos (Eds.), The principles of normalization in human services. Toronto: National Institute on Mental Retardation through Leonard Crainford.
Plichta, P. (2011). Ways of ICT usage among mildly intellectually disabled adolescents. In E. Dunkels, G.-M. Franberg, & C. Hallgren (Eds.), Youth culture and net culture: Online social practices (296-315). Hershey, PA: IGI Publishing.
Rocha, T., Bessa, M., Magalhaes, L., & Cabral, L. (2015, September). Performing universal tasks on the Web: Interaction with digital content by people with intellectual disabilities. Paper presented at Interaccion ’15, Barcelona, Spain.
Ruggerio, T. E. (2000). Uses and gratifications theory in the 21st century. Mass Communication and Society, 3, 3–37. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327825MCS0301_02
Schindler, P., & Borchardt, K. (2001, October). “I want that!” --teaching the internet and email to a group of clients with intellectual disability. Paper presented at the Reference and Information Services Section Symposium (RAISS). Retrieved from: http://www.library.uq.edu.au/papers/confpaper.doc
Seale, J. K. (2001). The same but different: The use of the personal home page by adults with Down syndrome as a tool for self-presentation. British Journal of Educational Technology, 32, 343-352. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8535.00203Seale, J. K., & Pockney, R. (2002). The use of the personal home page by adults with Down syndrome as a tool for managing identity and friendship. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30,142-148. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1468-3156.2002.00195.x
Seale, J. (2007). Strategies for supporting the online publishing activities of adults with learning difficulties. Disability and Society, 22, 173-186. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687590601141626
Seale, J., Nind, M., & Simmons, B. (2013). Transforming positive risk taking practices: The possibilities of creativity and resilience in learning disability contexts. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 15, 233-248. https://doi.org/10.1080/15017419.2012.703967
Seale, J. (2014). The role of supporters in facilitating use of technologies by adolescents and adults with learning disabilities: A place for positive risk taking? European Journal of Special Needs Education, 29, 220-236. https://doi.org/10.1080/08856257.2014.906980
Selwyn, N. (2006) Digital division or digital decision? A study of non-users and low-users of computers. Poetics: Journal of Empirical Research in Culture, Media and the Arts, 34, 273-292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.poetic.2006.05.003
Selwyn, N., & Facer. K (2007). Beyond the digital divide: Rethinking digital inclusion for the 21st century. Bristol: FutureLab. Retrieved from: http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/opening_education/Digital_Divide.pdf
Shpigelman, C.-N., & Gill, C. J. (2014). How do adults with intellectual disabilities use Facebook? Disability & Society, 29, 1601-1616. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2014.966186
Slavin, M. (2002). The Homepage Project. Retrieved from: http://www.ckglasgow.org.uk/homepageproject/
Stendal, K., Molka-Danielson, J., Munkvold, B. E., & Balandin, S. (2011). Initial experience with virtual worlds for people with lifelong disability: Preliminary findings. In NOKOBIT 2011: Proceedings of the 2011 Norsk konferanse for organisasjoners bruk av informasjonsteknologi (pp. 105-118). Retrieved from: http://dro.deakin.edu.au/view/DU:30062167
Turel, O., & Serenko, A. (2012). The benefits and dangers of enjoyment with social networking websites. European Journal of Information Systems, 21, 512-528. https://doi.org/10.1057/ejis.2012.1
UN General Assembly. (2006). Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/disabilities
Vanden Abeele, M., de Cock, R., & Roe, K. (2012). Blind faith in the web? Internet use and empowerment among visually and hearing impaired adults: A qualitative study of benefits and barriers. Communications, 37, 129–151. https://doi.org/10.1515/commun-2012-0007
Watson, J. (2016). Assumptions of decision-making capacity: The role supporter attitudes play in the realisation of article 12 for people with severe or profound intellectual disability.
Laws, 5(1), 6. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.3390/laws5010006
Williams, P. (2006). Developing methods to evaluate web usability with people with learning difficulties. British Journal of Special Education, 33, 173-179. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8578.2006.00436.x
Williams, P. (2011). Barriers to the creation and use of an accessible web portal for people with learning disabilities. International Journal of Education, 3(2), E21. https://doi.org/10.5296/ije.v3i2.1283
Wolfensberger, W., Nirje., B., Olansky, S., Perske., R., & Roos, P. (1972). The principles of normalization in human services. Toronto: National Institute on Mental Retardation through Leonard Crainford.
Zubal-Ruggieri, R. (2015). Making links, making connections: Internet resources for self-advocates and people with developmental disabilities. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 45, 209-2015. https://doi.org/10.1352/1934-9556(2007)45[209:MLMCIR]2.0.CO;2
1. Cyber Criminology
Zhraa A. Alhaboby, Doaa Alhaboby, Haider M. Al-Khateeb, Gregory Epiphaniou, Dhouha Kbaier Ben Ismail, Hamid Jahankhani, Prashant Pillai
ISBN 978-3-319-97181-0 Chapter 11, first page: 227, year: 2018
2. Education and social work students’ perceptions of Internet use by people with and without intellectual disability
Esther Chiner, Marcos Gómez-Puerta, Esther Villegas
International Journal of Developmental Disabilities vol: 68, issue: 3, first page: 365, year: 2022
3. It's not all doom and gloom: What the pandemic has taught us about digitally inclusive practices that support people with learning disabilities to access and use technologies
British Journal of Learning Disabilities vol: 51, issue: 2, first page: 218, year: 2023
4. Support persons’ views on remote communication and social media for people with communicative and cognitive disabilities
Margret Buchholz, Ulrika Ferm, Kristina Holmgren
Disability and Rehabilitation vol: 42, issue: 10, first page: 1439, year: 2020
5. Tensions between risk, coping and support: young people with intellectual disability in Sweden and Internet-related support
Disability & Society vol: 38, issue: 3, first page: 460, year: 2023
6. Digitalization of welfare organizations for persons with intellectual disabilities: between democratic ideals, legitimacy and institutional logics
Camilla Eriksson, Jens Ineland
Disability & Society first page: 1, year: 2023
7. Studying Problematic Online Behavior of Adolescents With Mild Intellectual Disabilities and Borderline Intellectual Functioning: Methodological and Ethical Considerations for Data Collection
Rogier de Groot, Hendrien L. Kaal, Wouter Ph Stol
International Journal of Qualitative Methods vol: 18, first page: 160940691985797, year: 2019
8. “You want to know that you’re safe”: Experiences of risk, restriction and resilience online among people with an intellectual disability
Darren David Chadwick
Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace vol: 16, issue: 3, year: 2022
9. Selection and evaluation of Internet information by adults with intellectual disabilities
Ladislao Salmerón, Inmaculada Fajardo, Marcos Gómez-Puerta
European Journal of Special Needs Education vol: 34, issue: 3, first page: 272, year: 2019
10. Wilderness and resistance: illuminating the digital inequalities experienced by adults with learning disabilities between 1970 and 1999
Disability & Society vol: 34, issue: 9-10, first page: 1481, year: 2019
11. Information and communication technology use in daily life among young adults with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability
Camilla Ramsten, Lene Martin, Munir Dag, Lena Marmstål Hammar
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities vol: 24, issue: 3, first page: 289, year: 2020
12. Vulnerable subjects and autonomous actors: The right to sexuality education for disabled under-18s
Aoife Daly, Rachel Heah, Kirsty Liddiard
Global Studies of Childhood vol: 9, issue: 3, first page: 235, year: 2019
13. Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction
Vanessa Nina Heitplatz, Christian Bühler
ISBN 978-3-031-35681-0 Chapter 23, first page: 353, year: 2023
14. A socio‐emotional analysis of technology use by people with intellectual disabilities
J. Setchell, T. Barlott, M. Torres
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research vol: 65, issue: 2, first page: 149, year: 2021
15. Internet use among adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities in South Korea
Kyung Mee Kim, Chung Eun Lee
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities vol: 34, issue: 3, first page: 724, year: 2021
16. Why Are Turkish University Students Addicted to the Internet? A Moderated Mediation Model
Orhan Koçak, İlayda Yılmaz, Mustafa Z. Younis
Healthcare vol: 9, issue: 8, first page: 953, year: 2021
17. Digital inclusion and people with learning disabilities
Darren Chadwick, Cameron Richards, Martin Molin, Iva Strnadová
British Journal of Learning Disabilities vol: 51, issue: 2, first page: 119, year: 2023
18. A Case for Greater Risk Tolerance in Internet Use by Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Comment on Chalghoumi et al.
Ethics & Behavior vol: 29, issue: 3, first page: 223, year: 2019
19. Young people with intellectual disability and the internet: Challenges and opportunities in qualitative research
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities vol: 27, issue: 3, first page: 598, year: 2023
20. Digital inclusion in Spanish mainstream and special schools: Teachers' perceptions of Internet use by students with intellectual disabilities
Esther Chiner, Marcos Gómez‐Puerta, María Cristina Cardona‐Moltó
British Journal of Learning Disabilities vol: 51, issue: 2, first page: 195, year: 2023
21. A discursive psychological examination of educators’ experiences of children with disabilities accessing the Internet: a role for digital resilience
Simon P. Hammond, Jeanette D'Arcy, Mark Minott, Elona Krasniqi
Information, Communication & Society first page: 1, year: 2023
22. A Systematic Review of Problematic Internet Use in Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Claude L. Normand, Marisa H. Fisher, Isabelle Simonato, Stéphanie-M. Fecteau, Marie-Hélène Poulin
Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders vol: 9, issue: 4, first page: 507, year: 2022
23. Opportunities and Hazards of the Internet for Students with Intellectual Disabilities: The Views of Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers
Esther Chiner, Marcos Gómez-Puerta, Santiago Mengual-Andrés
International Journal of Disability, Development and Education vol: 68, issue: 4, first page: 538, year: 2021
24. Evaluación de la formación online por jóvenes con discapacidad intelectual: experiencia durante la covid-19 en contexto universitario
Gabriela Inés Coñoman Garay, Vicenta Ávila Clemente
Siglo Cero Revista Española sobre Discapacidad Intelectual vol: 53, issue: 2, first page: 61, year: 2022
25. An Online Life Like Any Other: Identity, Self-Determination, and Social Networking Among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities
Darren D. Chadwick, Chris Fullwood
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking vol: 21, issue: 1, first page: 56, year: 2018
26. COMMENT DÉFINIR ET MESURER LA PARTICIPATION SOCIALE À L’ÈRE DU NUMÉRIQUE?
Claude L. Normand, Martin Molin, Isabelle Simonato, Dany Lussier-Desrochers, Julie Ruel, Alejandro Romero-Torres
Revue francophone de la déficience intellectuelle vol: 30, issue: spécial, first page: 2, year: 2020
27. Increasing Participation of Persons With Intellectual Disabilities With Smart Socio‐Technical Arrangements
Verena Wahl, Florian Kiuppis
Social Inclusion vol: 11, issue: 3, first page: 5, year: 2023
28. DÉVELOPPER L’AUTONOMIE NUMÉRIQUE CHEZ DE JEUNES ADULTES TRISOMIQUES
Isabelle Simonato, Dany Lussier-Desrochers, Claude L. Normand, Alejandro Romero-Torres, Yves Lachapelle
Revue francophone de la déficience intellectuelle vol: 30, issue: spécial, first page: 42, year: 2020
29. Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction
Leandro S. Guedes, Irene Zanardi, Marilina Mastrogiuseppe, Stefania Span, Monica Landoni
ISBN 978-3-031-35897-5 Chapter 7, first page: 91, year: 2023
30. Giving guidance in the online lives of young people with intellectual disabilities: Challenges and guiding approaches in the daily practice of Dutch care staff
Rogier de Groot, Hendrien L. Kaal, Wouter Ph. Stol
Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability vol: 48, issue: 3, first page: 260, year: 2023
31. Young adults with intellectual disability, their relatives, and the Internet: perceptions and use during COVID-19 confinement in Spain
Pablo Delgado, Inmaculada Fajardo, Beatriz Lucas, Antonio Ferrer, Vicenta Ávila
Behaviour & Information Technology first page: 1, year: 2023
32. Internet opportunities and risks for adolescents with intellectual disabilities: A comparative study of parents’ perceptions
Kristin Alfredsson Ågren, Anette Kjellberg, Helena Hemmingsson
Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy vol: 27, issue: 8, first page: 601, year: 2020
33. Developing visual tangible artefacts as an inclusive method for exploring digital activities with young people with learning disabilities
Ditte Lystbæk Weber, Margot Brereton, Anne Marie Kanstrup
British Journal of Learning Disabilities vol: 51, issue: 2, first page: 250, year: 2023
34. Advances in Design for Inclusion
Dany Lussier-Desrochers, Claude L. Normand, Alejandro Romero-Torres, Yves Lachapelle, Geneviève Labrecque, Valérie Godin-Tremblay
ISBN 978-3-319-60597-5 Chapter 48, first page: 510, year: 2018
35. Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction
Miriam Wüst, Nele Maskut, Lukas Baumann, Vanessa Nina Heitplatz, Leevke Wilkens, Susanne Dirks, Christian Bühler
ISBN 978-3-031-35897-5 Chapter 34, first page: 469, year: 2023
36. Digital participation? Internet use among adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities: A comparative study
Kristin Alfredsson Ågren, Anette Kjellberg, Helena Hemmingsson
New Media & Society vol: 22, issue: 12, first page: 2128, year: 2020
37. Teachers’ perceptions on online behaviour of students with intellectual disability, risk mediation and training
Marcos Gómez-Puerta, Esther Chiner
European Journal of Special Needs Education vol: 35, issue: 4, first page: 437, year: 2020
38. Adults with intellectual disabilities as users of social media: A scoping review
Sian Anderson, Tal Araten‐Bergman, Gillian Steel
British Journal of Learning Disabilities vol: 51, issue: 4, first page: 544, year: 2023
39. Internet use and online behaviour of adults with intellectual disability: support workers’ perceptions, training and online risk mediation
Marcos Gómez-Puerta, Esther Chiner
Disability & Society vol: 37, issue: 7, first page: 1107, year: 2022
40. The online lives of adolescents with mild or borderline intellectual disabilities in the Netherlands: Care staff knowledge and perceptions
Rogier de Groot, Hendrien L. Kaal, Wouter Ph. Stol
Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability vol: 47, issue: 4, first page: 329, year: 2022
41. RESSOURCES ET VULNÉRABILITÉS DES ADULTES PRÉSENTANT UNE DÉFICIENCE INTELLECTUELLE FACE AUX RISQUES NUMÉRIQUES
Revue francophone de la déficience intellectuelle vol: 30, issue: spécial, first page: 13, year: 2020
42. ‘If the phone were broken, I’d be screwed’: media use of people with disabilities in the digital era
Antonia Baumgartner, Tobias Rohrbach, Philomen Schönhagen
Disability & Society vol: 38, issue: 1, first page: 73, year: 2023
43. Caregivers' Role in Cybersecurity for Aging Information Technology Users with Intellectual Disabilities
Jessica N. Rocheleau, Hajer Chalghoumi, Jeffrey Jutai, Susan Farrell, Yves Lachapelle, Virginie Cobigo
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking vol: 24, issue: 9, first page: 624, year: 2021
44. Information Privacy for Technology Users With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Why Does It Matter?
Hajer Chalghoumi, Virginie Cobigo, Crislee Dignard, Amélie Gauthier-Beaupré, Jeffrey W. Jutai, Yves Lachapelle, Johanna Lake, Rawad Mcheimech, Maxine Perrin
Ethics & Behavior vol: 29, issue: 3, first page: 201, year: 2019
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Copyright © 2017 Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace