Intellectual disability and computers in therapy: Views of service users and clinical psychologists
Digital media have increased the accessibility of psychological therapies for the general population, but not for people with intellectual disability (ID), despite their greater mental health needs. This study explores and compares the views of service users and clinicians on how computers can be integrated in psychological therapies for people with ID who are traditionally under-represented in mainstream services. We conducted in-depth unstructured interviews with three clinicians who had experience of working with people with ID and with three adults with ID who have experienced computerised training in cognitive behaviour therapy skills. The interviews explored the a) potential functions and benefits, b) anticipated challenges and barriers, and c) required design features of computers in therapy for people with ID. We used inductive coding to identify independent themes in the responses of clinicians and service users, and then compared the emerging themes between the two sets of participants to arrive at common themes. Six common themes emerged from service user and clinician responses: confidentiality of personal information and online applications, barriers in the communication with the therapist, value of therapist and personal contact, access to computer technologies, engagement potential of computer programmes and home practice. Three further themes were specific to clinician responses: patient suitability for computerised approaches, clinician distrust of computerised interventions, and involving a third party. Computer technologies open up possibilities for psychological therapy with people with ID by helping them overcome in-session communication difficulties and practise skills at home. On-screen pictures, interactive games, symbols, sign language and touch-screen are key design features to help engagement. The main challenges are clinician-reported difficulties in their own capacity and capability to access and use computers and in fitting computers into their own defined roles.
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