Developing a shorter version of the Estonian Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (E-SAPS18)


The aim of this paper is to develop a shorter version of the Estonian Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale based on previous works (e.g., Ching et al., 2015; Kwon, Lee, et al., 2013; Rozgonjuk, Rosenvald, & Täht, 2016). Seven hundred and sixty-seven people participated in the study (Mage = 26.10 ± 6.73 years; 22% male), for which they completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale (E-SAS-33; Rozgonjuk, Rosenvald, & Täht, 2016), the Estonian Internet Addiction Test (E-IAT; based on Young, 1998), and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS; Kwon, Lee, et al., 2013). Exploratory factor analysis (maximum likelihood with geomin rotation) and confirmatory factor analysis (parameter estimation: maximum likelihood), an internal-consistency test, t- tests for mean comparisons, correlation analysis and experts’ opinions were used to shorten the E-SAS-33 and validate a new version of the scale. The results of the analyses showed that the 18-item test with five subscales (“tolerance”, “positive anticipation”, “cyberspace-oriented relationships”, “withdrawal”, and “physical symptoms” ) has sound psychometric properties and that the content of the subscales is similar to the original. Among the results, statistically significant differences in E-SAPS18 scores were found in gender, age, level of education, smartphone main use and self-reported addiction. Furthermore, correlates suggest that smartphone addiction, social media use, and Internet addiction might share a similar underlying mechanism.

Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale; adaptation; validation; smartphone addiction
Author biographies

Dmitri Rozgonjuk

Dmitri Rozgonjuk (M.A. University of Tartu, 2015; is a PhD researcher in Psychology at the University of Tartu, Estonia. His main interests include the impact of digital device and social media usage on subjective well-being, mental health, and academic outcomes.

Valdur Rosenvald

Valdur Rosenvald (B.A. University of Tartu, 2016; is an undergraduate student in Psychology at the University of Tartu, Estonia. Part of this study is based on his undergraduate research project.

Sven Janno

Sven Janno (M.D. University of Helsinki, 2006; is the Head of Psychiatric Clinic of University of Tartu, Estonia. His research has been mainly conducted in the field of schizophrenia.

Karin Täht

Karin Täht (Ph.D. University of Tartu, 2012; is a research fellow (psychometrics) in the Department of Psychology at the University of Tartu, Estonia. Her research has mainly been connected with educational psychology.

Acharya, J. P., Acharya, I., & Waghrey, D. (2013). A study on some of the common health effects of cell-phones amongst college students. Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education, 3(article 214). 10.5958/j.2319-5886.2.3.068

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Bian, M., & Leung, L. (2015). Linking loneliness, shyness, smartphone addiction symptoms, and patterns of smartphone use to social capital. Social Science Computer Review, 33, 61-79.

Billieux, J. (2012). Problematic use of the mobile phone: A literature review and a pathways model. Current Psychiatry Reviews, 8, 299-307.

Billieux, J., Maurage, P., Lopez-Fernandez, O., Kuss, D. J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015). Can disordered mobile phone use be considered a behavioral addiction? An update on current evidence and a comprehensive model for future research. Current Addiction Reports, 2, 156-162.

Billieux, J., Van der Linden, M., & Rochat, L. (2008). The role of impulsivity in actual and problematic use of the mobile phone. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22, 1195-1210.

Ching, S. M., Yee, A., Ramachandran, V., Lim, S. M. S., Sulaiman, W. A. W., Foo, Y. L., & kee Hoo, F. (2015). Validation of a Malay version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale among medical students in Malaysia. PloS ONE, 10(10), e0139337.

Choliz, M. (2010). Mobile phone addiction: A point of issue. Addiction, 105, 373-374.

Demirci, K., Orhan, H., Demirdas, A., Akpınar, A., & Sert, H. (2014). Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale in a younger population. Bulletin of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 24, 226-234.

Deursen, A. J., Bolle, C. L., Hegner, S. M., & Kommers, P. A. (2015). Modeling habitual and addictive smartphone behavior: The role of smartphone usage types, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, age, and gender. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 411-420.

Dingus, T. A., Guo, F., Lee, S., Antin, J. F., Perez, M., Buchanan-King, M., & Hankey, J. (2016). Driver crash risk factors and prevalence evaluation using naturalistic driving data. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113, 2636-2641.

Duggan, M., & Brenner, J. (2013, February 14). The demographics of social media users – 2012. Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved from

Eduardo, P. P., Teresa, M., Monje, R., María, J., Sanchez, R., & León, D. (2012). Mobile phone abuse or addiction: A review of the literature. Adicciones, 24, 139-152.

Enez Darcin, A., Kose, S., Noyan, C. O., Nurmedov, S., Yılmaz, O., & Dilbaz, N. (2016). Smartphone addiction and its relationship with social anxiety and loneliness. Behaviour & Information Technology, 35, 520-525.

Fox, S., & Rainie, L. (2014, February 27). The web at 25 in the US. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved from

Haug, S., Castro, R. P., Kwon, M., Filler, A., Kowatsch, T., & Schaub, M. P. (2015). Smartphone use and smartphone addiction among young people in Switzerland. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 4, 299-307.

Holden, C. (2001). 'Behavioral' addictions: Do they exist? Science, 294, 980-982.

Kim, D., Lee, Y., Lee, J., Nam, J. K., & Chung, Y. (2014). Development of Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale for youth. PLoS ONE, 9(5), e97920.

Kim, E. J., Namkoong, K., Ku, T., & Kim, S. J. (2008). The relationship between online game addiction and aggression, self-control and narcissistic personality traits. European Psychiatry, 23, 212-218.

Kim, K., Ryu, E., Chon, M. Y., Yeun, E. J., Choi, S. Y., Seo, J. S., & Nam, B. W. (2006). Internet addiction in Korean adolescents and its relation to depression and suicidal ideation: a questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 43, 185-192.

Kim, S., & Kim, R. (2002). A study of internet addiction: Status, causes, and remedies. Journal of Korean Home Economics Association English Edition, 3(1), 1-19.

Kim, Y., Jeong, J. E., Cho, H., Jung, D. J., Kwak, M., Rho, M. J., . . . Choi, I. Y. (2016). Personality factors predicting smartphone addiction predisposition: Behavioral inhibition and activation systems, impulsivity, and self-control. PloS ONE, 11(8), e0159788.

Klauer, S. G., Dingus, T. A., Neale, V. L., Sudweeks, J. D., & Ramsey, D. J. (2006). The impact of driver inattention on near-crash/crash risk: An analysis using the 100-car naturalistic driving study data. Washington, DC: United States.

Kline, P. (2013). Handbook of psychological testing. London: Routledge.

Kwon, M., Kim, D. J., Cho, H., & Yang, S. (2013). The smartphone Addiction Scale: Development and validation of a short version for adolescents. PloS ONE, 8(12).

Kwon, M., Lee, J. Y., Won, W. Y., Park, J. W., Min, J. A., Hahn, C., . . . Kim, D. J. (2013). Development and validation of a Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS). PloS ONE, 8(2), e56936.

Lee, Y. K., Chang, C. T., Lin, Y., & Cheng, Z. H. (2014). The dark side of smartphone usage: Psychological traits, compulsive behavior and technostress. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 373-383.

Lepp, A., Barkley, J. E., & Karpinski, A. C. (2014). The relationship between cell phone use, academic performance, anxiety, and satisfaction with life in college students. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 343-350.

Lepp, A., Barkley, J. E., Sanders, G. J., Rebold, M., & Gates, P. (2013). The relationship between cell phone use, physical and sedentary activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of US college students. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10(article 79).

Lin, Y. H., Chang, L. R., Lee, Y. H., Tseng, H. W., Kuo, T. B., & Chen, S. H. (2014). Development and validation of the smartphone addiction inventory (SPAI). PloS ONE, 9(6), e98312.

Lin, Y. H., Lin, Y. C., Lee, Y. H., Lin, P. H., Lin, S. H., Chang, L. R., . . . Kuo, T. B. (2015). Time distortion associated with smartphone addiction: Identifying smartphone addiction via a mobile application (App). Journal of Psychiatric Research, 65, 139-145.

Lopez-Fernandez, O. (2015). Short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale adapted to Spanish and French: Towards a cross-cultural research in problematic mobile phone use. Addictive Behaviors, 64, 275-280.

Mawston, N. (2015, March 11). Two billion people worldwide now own a smartphone. Retrieved from

Montag, C., Błaszkiewicz, K., Sariyska, R., Lachmann, B., Andone, I., Trendafilov, B., . . . Markowetz, A. (2015). Smartphone usage in the 21st century: Who is active on WhatsApp? BMC research notes, 8(article 331).

Nielsen, P., & Fjuk, A. (2010). The reality beyond the hype: Mobile Internet is primarily an extension of PC-based Internet. The Information Society, 26, 375-382.

Noyan, C., Darçin, A., Nurmedov, S., Yılmaz, O., & Dilbaz, N. (2014). Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale - Short Version among university students. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 16, 73-81.

Raento, M., Oulasvirta, A., & Eagle, N. (2009). Smartphones an emerging tool for social scientists. Sociological Methods & Research, 37, 426-454.

Raudsepp, K. (2012). Internetisõltuvus ja selle seosed kooliga seotud teguritega kahe Tartu linna kooli näitel [Internet addiction and its relationship with school factors on the example of two schools in Tartu] (Master’s thesis). University of Tartu, Department of Education.

Rozgonjuk, D., Rosenvald, V., & Täht, K. (2016, June). Adaptation and Validation of the 33-item Estonian Smartphone Addiction Scale (E-SAS-33). Poster presented at the 21st Annual CyberPsychology, CyberTherapy & Social Networking Conference (CYPSY21), Dublin, Ireland.

Rutland, J. B., Sheets, T., & Young, T. (2007). Development of a scale to measure problem use of short message service: The SMS problem use diagnostic questionnaire. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10, 841-844.

Pies, R. (2009). Should DSM-V designate “internet addiction” a mental disorder? Psychiatry (Edgmont), 6(2), 31–37.

Samaha, M., & Hawi, N. S. (2016). Relationships among smartphone addiction, stress, academic performance, and satisfaction with life. Computers in Human Behavior, 57, 321-325.

Simisker, H., Kivilo, K., Aak, L., Järv, J., & Kaal, E. (2014). Nutiseadmete kasutajate turvateadlikkuse ja turvalise käitumise uuring [The study of smart device users' security awareness and secure behaviour]. TNS Emor. Retrieved from

Thomée, S., Härenstam, A., & Hagberg, M. (2011). Mobile phone use and stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression among young adults - A prospective cohort study. BMC Public Health, 11(article 66).

Toda, M., Monden, K., Kubo, K., & Morimoto, K. (2004). Cellular phone dependence tendency of female university students. Japanese Journal of Hygiene, 59, 383-386.

Tossel, C., Kortum, P., Shepard, C., Rahmati, A., & Zhong, L. (2015). Exploring smartphone addiction: Insights from long-term telemetric behavioral measures. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 9(2), 37-43.

Saxena, Y., Shrivastava, A., & Singh, P. (2014). Mobile usage and sleep patterns among medical students. Indian Journal Physiol Pharmacol, 58, 100-103.

Young, K. S. (1998). Caught in the net: How to recognize the signs of internet addiction -- and a winning strategy for recovery. John Wiley & Sons.

Yu, H. G., & Son, C. (2016). Effects of ACT on smartphone addiction level, self-control, and anxiety of college students with smartphone addiction. Journal of Digital Convergence, 14, 415-426.





PDF views