Thinspiration vs. thicksperation: Comparing pro-anorexic and fat acceptance image posts on a photo-sharing site
Social identity; body image; photo sharing platforms; online communities; social support
Anderson, J. (2012). Whose voice counts? A critical examination of discourses surrounding the body mass index. Fat Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Body Weight and Society, 1, 195-207. https://doi.org/10.1080/21604851.2012.656500
Bane, C. M., Haymaker, C., & Zinchuk, J. (2005). Social support as a moderator of the bigfish in a little pond effect in online self help support groups. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 10, 239-261. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9861.2005.tb00015.x
Bartky, S. (1990). Femininity and domination: Studies in the phenomenology of oppression. New York, NY: Routledge.
Boero, N., & Pascoe, C. J. (2012). Pro-anorexia communities and online interaction: Bringing the pro-ana body online. Body & Society, 18(2), 27-57. https://doi.org/10.1177/1357034X12440827
Borzekowski, D. L., Schenk, S., Wilson, J. L., & Peebles, R. (2010). E-Ana and e-Mia: A content analysis of pro–eating disorder web sites. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 1526-1534. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2009.172700
Bowers, K. (2010, April 4). Fat acceptance: Can you be healthy at any size? Women’s Health. Retrieved from http://www.womenshealthmag.com/health/fat-acceptance
Briscoe, F.M. (2005). A question of representation in educational discourse: Multiplicities and inter-sections of identities and positionalities. Educational Studies, 38(1), 23–41. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326993es3801_4
Brotsky, S. R., & Giles, D. (2007). Inside the “pro-ana” community: A covert online participant observation. Eating Disorders, 15, 93–109. https://doi.org/10.1080/10640260701190600
Brown, L. (1989), Fat-oppressive attitudes and the feminist therapist: Directions for change.Women and Therapy: A Feminist Quarterly, 8(3), 19-30.
Campos, P. (2005). The diet myth: Why America’s obsession with weight is hazardous to your health. New York, NY: Penguin.
Carr, D., & Friedman M.A. (2005). Is obesity stigmatizing? Body weight, perceived discrimination, and psychological well-being in the United States. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46, 244–259. https://doi.org/10.1177/002214650504600303
Chesley, E. B., Alberts, J., Klein, J., & Kreipe, R. (2003). Pro or con? Anorexia nervosa and the Internet. Journal of Adolescent Health, 32, 123-124. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(02)00615-8
Chou, W. Y. S., Prestin, A., & Kunath, S. (2014). Obesity in social media: A mixed methods analysis. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 4, 314-323. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13142-014-0256-1
Cooper, C. R. M. (2012). Fat activism: A queer autoethnography [doctoral dissertation]. University of Limerick. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10344/2823
Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2014). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publications.
Csipke, E., & Horne, O. (2007). Pro-eating disorder websites: Users' opinions. European Eating Disorders Review, 15, 196-206. https://doi.org/10.1002/erv.789
Cutrona, C. E., & Suhr, J. A. (1994). Social support communication in the context of marriage: an analysis of couples' supportive interactions. In B. R. Burleson, T. L. Albrecht, & I. G. Sarason (Eds.), Communication of social support: Messages, interactions, relationships, and community (pp. 113-135). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Dailey, K. (2011, January). 'Fatshion' blogs defiantly celebrate plus-size couture. BBC. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-16259070
Daye, C. A., Webb, J. B., & Jafari, N. (2014). Exploring self-compassion as a refuge against recalling the body-related shaming of caregiver eating messages on dimensions of objectified body consciousness in college women. Body Image, 11, 547-556. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2014.08.001
Dias, K. (2013). The ana sanctuary: Women’s pro-anorexia narratives in cyberspace. Journal of International Women's Studies, 4(2), 31-45.
Dickins, M., Thomas, S. L., King, B., Lewis, S., & Holland, K. (2011). The role of the Fatosphere in fat adults’ responses to obesity stigma: A model of empowerment without a focus on weight loss. Qualitative Health Research, 21, 1679-1691. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732311417728
Ellemers, N., & Haslam, S. A. (2011). Social identity theory. In P. A. Van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski, & T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology: Volume two (pp. 379-398). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ernsberger, P., & Haskew, P. (1987). Health implications of obesity: An alternative view. Journal of Obesity and Weight Regulation, 6(67), 58–137.
Falk, G. (2001). Stigma: How we treat outsiders. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.Figueras Bates, C. (2015). “I am a waste of breath, of space, of time”: Metaphors of self in a pro-anorexia group. Qualitative Health Research, 25, 189–204. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732314550004
Gavin, J., Rodham, K., & Poyer, H. (2008). The presentation of “pro-anorexia” in online group interactions. Qualitative Health Research, 18, 325-333. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732307311640
Giles, D. (2006). Constructing identities in cyberspace: The case of eating disorders. British Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 463-477. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466605X53596
Giles, D. C., & Newbold, J. (2010). Self- and other-diagnosis in user-led mental health online communities. Qualitative Health Research, 21, 419-428. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732310381388
Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. (1967). The discovery grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative inquiry. Chicago, IL: Aldine.
Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes of the management of spoiled identity. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Gurrieri, L., & Cherrier, H. (2013). Queering beauty: Fatshionistas in the fatosphere. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 16, 276–295. https://doi.org/10.1108/13522751311326107
Haas, S. M., Harding, M. E., Jennings, N. A., & Wagner, L. M. (2010). Online negative enabling support groups. New Media & Society, 13, 40-57. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444810363910
Harding, K. (2007). BMI project. Shapely Prose. Retrieved from http://kateharding.net/bmi-illustrated/
Harding, K., & Kirby, M. (2009). Lessons from the fat-o-sphere: Quit dieting and declare a truce with your body. New York, NY: Penguin.
Harper, K., Sperry, S., & Thompson, J. (2008). Viewership of pro-eating disorder websites: Association with body image and eating disturbances. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 41, 92–5. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.20408
Harshbarger, J. L., Ahlers-Schmidt, C. R., Mayans, L., Mayans, D., & Hawkins, J. H. (2009). Pro-anorexia websites: What a clinician should know. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 42, 367-370. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.20608
Hendry, L. B., & Gillies, P. (1978). Body type, body esteem, school, and leisure: A study of overweight, average, and underweight adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 7, 181-195. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01537525
Hogg, M. A., & Abrams, D. (1988). Social identifications: A social psychology of intergroup relations and group processes. Florence, KY: Taylor & Frances/Routledge.
Instagram. (2016, January 22). Our story. Instagram. Retrieved from https://www.instagram.com/press/?hl=en
Juarascio, A. S., Shoaib, A., & Timko, C. A. (2010). Pro-eating disorder communities on social networking sites: A content analysis. Eating Disorders, 18, 393-407. https://doi.org/10.1080/10640266.2010.511918
Katz, M. (2009, July 15). Tossing out the diet and embracing the fat. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/16/health/nutrition/16skin.html
Kirkland, A. (2008). Fat Rights: Dilemmas of difference and personhood. New York: New York University Press.
Klein, R. (1996). Eat fat. New York: Pantheon Books.
Knapton, O. (2013). Pro-anorexia: Extensions of ingrained concepts. Discourse & Society, 24, 461–477. https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926513482067
LaCoursiere, S. P. (2001). A theory of online social support. Advances in Nursing Science, 24, 60-77. https://doi.org/10.1097/00012272-200109000-00008
LeBesco, K. (2004). Revolting bodies: The struggle to redefine fat identity. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
LeBesco, K., & Braziel, J. E. (2001) Editors introduction. In J. E. Braziel & K. LeBesco (Eds.), Bodies out of bounds: Fatness and transgression. University of California Press: Berkeley, CA.
Lipczynska, S. (2007). Discovering the cult of ana and mia: a review of pro-anorexia websites. Journal of Mental Health, 16, 545-548.
Lokken, K., Ferraro, F. R., Kirchner, T., & Bowling, M. (2003). Gender differences in body size dissatisfaction among individuals with low, medium, or high levels of body focus. The Journal of General Psychology, 130, 305-310. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221300309601161
Lyons, E. J., Mehl, M. R., & Pennebaker, J.W. (2006). Pro-anorexics and recovering anorexics differ in their linguistic Internet self-presentation. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60, 253-256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2005.07.017
Mantella, D. G. (2007). “Pro-Ana” web-log uses and gratifications: Towards under- standing the pro-anorexia paradox [masters thesis]. Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA.
McDonell-Parry, A. (2009, June 17). Does the fat acceptance movement glamorize an unhealthy lifestyle? The Frisky. Retrieved from http://www.thefrisky.com/2009-06-17/does-the-fat-acceptance-movement-glamorize-an-unhealthy-lifestyle/
McKinley, N. M. (1999). Women and objectified body consciousness: mothers' and daughters' body experience in cultural, developmental, and familial context. Developmental Psychology, 35, 760-769. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.520
McKinley, N. M., & Hyde, J. S. (1996). The objectified body consciousness scale development and validation. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 181-215. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1996.tb00467.x
Millman, M. (1980). Such a pretty face, being fat in America. New York, NY: Norton Press.
Murray, S. (2005). Doing politics or selling out? Living the fat body. Women’s Studies, 34, 265–277. https://doi.org/10.1080/00497870590964165
Myers, A. M., & Rothblum, E. D. (2010). Coping with prejudice and discrimination based on weight. In J. L. Chin (Ed.), The psychology of prejudice and discrimination (pp. 187-197). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.
Norris, M. L., Boydell, K. M., Pinhas, L., & Katzman, D. K. (2006). Ana and the Internet: A review of pro-anorexia websites. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39, 443-447. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.20305
Orbach, S. (1978). Fat is a feminist issue: How to lose weight permanently – Without dieting. London: Arrow Books.
Parks, P. S. M., & Read, M. H. (1997). Adolescent male athletes: Body image, diet, and exercise. Adolescence, 32, 593-602.
Peters, L. D. (2014). You are what you wear: How plus-size fashion figures in fat identity formation. Fashion Theory, 18(1), 45-71. https://doi.org/10.2752/175174114X13788163471668
Peng, T. (2008, November). Pro-anorexia groups spread to Facebook. Newsweek. Retrieved from http://www.newsweek.com/pro-anorexia-groups-spread-facebook-85129
Rabin, C. R. (2008, January 22). In the fatosphere, big is in, or at least accepted. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/22/health/22fblogs.html
Riley, S., Rodham, K., & Gavin, J. (2009). Doing weight: Pro-ana and recovery identities in cyberspace. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 19, 348-359. https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.1022
Rubin, M., & Hewstone, M. (1998). Social identity theory's self-esteem hypothesis: A review and some suggestions for clarification. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2, 40-62. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr0201_3
Satinsky, S., & Ingraham, N. (2014). At the intersection of public health and fat studies: Critical perspectives on the measurement of body size. Fat Studies, 3, 143-154. https://doi.org/10.1080/21604851.2014.889505
Smith, N., Wickes, R., & Underwood, M. (2015). Managing a marginalised identity in pro-anorexia and fat acceptance cybercommunities. Journal of Sociology, 51, 950-967. https://doi.org/10.1177/1440783313486220
Sobal, J., & D. Maurer. (1999). Interpreting weight: The social management of fatness and thinness. New Jersey: Aldine.
Stets, J. E., & Burke, P. J. (2000). Identity theory and social identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 63, 224-237. https://doi.org/10.2307/2695870
Stommel, W., & Koole, T. (2010). The online support group as a community: A micro-analysis of the interaction with a new member. Discourse Studies, 12, 357-378. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445609358518
Stommel, W., & Meijman, F. J. (2011). The use of conversation analysis to study social accessibility of an online support group on eating disorders. Global Health Promotion, 18(2), 18-26. https://doi.org/10.1177/1757975911404764
Saguy, A. C., & Ward, A. (2011). Coming out as fat rethinking stigma. Social Psychology Quarterly, 74, 53-75. https://doi.org/10.1177/0190272511398190
Sundar, S. S., Edwards, H. H., Hu, Y., & Stavrositu, C. (2007). Blogging for better health: Putting the “public” back in public health. In M. Tremayne (Ed.), Blogging, citizenship, and the future of media (pp. 83-102). Routledge.
Tajfel, H. (1969). Cognitive aspects of prejudice. Journal of Biosocial Science, 1(S1), 173-191. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1969.tb00620.x
Tajfel, H. E. (1978). Differentiation between social groups: Studies in the social psychology of intergroup relations. Waltham, MA: Academic Press.
Tajfel, H. (1979). Individuals and groups in social psychology. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 18, 183-190. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1979.tb00324.x
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations (pp. 30-47).
Thurlow, C., & Bell, K. (2009). Against technologization: Young people's new media discourse as creative cultural practice. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 14(4), 1038-1049. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2009.01480.x
Tierney, S. (2008). Creating communities in cyberspace: Pro-anorexia web sites and social capital. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 15, 340-343. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2850.2007.01190.x
Tiller, J., Schmidt, U., Ali, S., & Treasure, J. (1995). Patterns of punitiveness in women with eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 17, 365-371. https://doi.org/10.1002/1098-108X(199505)17:4<365::AID-EAT2260170408>3.0.CO;2-A
Tiller, J. M., Sloane, G., Schmidt, U., & Troop, N. (1997). Social support in patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 21, 31–38. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(199701)21:1<31::AID-EAT4>3.0.CO;2-4
Tong, S. T., Heinemann-Lafave, D., Jeon, J., Kolodziej-Smith, R., & Warshay, N. (2013). The use of pro-ana blogs for online social support. Eating disorders, 21, 408-422. https://doi.org/10.1080/10640266.2013.827538
Teufel, M., Hofer, E., Junne, F., Sauer, H., Zipfel, S., & Giel, K. E. (2013). A comparative analysis of anorexia nervosa groups on Facebook. Eating and Weight Disorders-Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 18, 413-420.
Turner, J. C. (1985). Social categorization and the self-concept: A social cognitive theory of group behavior. In E. J. Lawler (Ed.), Advances in group processes (pp. 77-122). Greenwich, CT: JAI press.
Turner, J. C. (1999). Some current issues in research on social identity and self-categorization theories. In N. Ellemers, R. Spears, & B. Doosje (Eds.), Social identity: Context, commitment, content (pp. 6-34). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
Wardle, J., Waller, J., & Fox, E. (2002). Age of onset and body dissatisfaction in obesity. Addictive Behaviors, 27, 561-573. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4603(01)00193-9
Warin, M. (2009). Abject relations: Everyday worlds of anorexia. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Williams, C., & Riley, S. (2013). Finding support and negotiating identity: An analysis of the structure and content of newbie posts and their elicited replies on five pro-eating disorder websites. RESET. Recherches en sciences sociales sur Internet, (2).
Yeshua-Katz, D., & Martins, N. (2013). Communicating stigma: The pro-ana paradox. Health Communication, 28, 499–508. https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2012.699889
Zeller, M. H., & Modi, A. C. (2006). Predictors of health-related quality of life in obese youth. Obesity, 14, 122-130. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2006.15
1. Internet Usage by Women with Eating Disorders during Illness and Recovery
Martina Smahelova, Hana Drtilova, David Smahel, Michal Cevelicek
Health Communication vol: 35, issue: 5, first page: 628, year: 2020
2. The Role of BMI Group on the Impact of Weight Bias Versus Body Positivity Terminology on Behavioral Intentions and Beliefs: An Experimental Study
Sarah-Jane F. Stewart, Jane Ogden
Frontiers in Psychology vol: 10, year: 2019
3. 2018 Fourth International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication & Automation (ICACCA)
Manimekalai Jambulingam, Jayamalar Francis, Magiswary Dorasamy
ISBN 978-1-5386-7167-2 first page: 1, year: 2018
4. The Indirect Effects of Thinspiration and Fitspiration Images on Young Women’s Sexual Attitudes
Karikarn Chansiri, Thipkanok Wongphothiphan, Autumn Shafer
Communication Research vol: 49, issue: 4, first page: 524, year: 2022
5. Self-representations of the experience of anorexia on YouTube: The joint influence of the explanatory model and the web platform
New Media & Society first page: 146144482210991, year: 2022
6. Fashion Promotion on Instagram with Eye Tracking: Curvy Girl Influencers Versus Fashion Brands in Spain and Portugal
Luis Mañas-Viniegra, Ana-Isabel Veloso, Ubaldo Cuesta
Sustainability vol: 11, issue: 14, first page: 3977, year: 2019
7. Is it Important to Talk About Technologies with Eating Disorder Clients? The Health-Care Professional Perspective
Martina Šmahelová, Michal Čevelíček, Eliška Nehybková, David Šmahel, Ivo Čermák
Health Communication vol: 34, issue: 1, first page: 31, year: 2019
8. Folk Devils or Moral Entrepreneurs? Gap Bridging in the Social Studies of Pro-ana Communities
Deviant Behavior vol: 43, issue: 8, first page: 912, year: 2022
9. The Direct and Indirect Effects of Online Social Support, Neuroticism, and Web Content Internalization on the Drive for Thinness among Women Visiting Health-Oriented Websites
Nikol Kvardova, Hana Machackova, David Smahel
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health vol: 17, issue: 7, first page: 2416, year: 2020
10. Digital stigma coping strategies: A meta-analytic review of the association between health-related stigma dimensions and social support messages shared online
Daphna Yeshua-Katz, Stephen A. Rains, Emily B. Peterson, Kevin B. Wright
The Information Society vol: 36, issue: 1, first page: 19, year: 2020
11. Digital Technology, Eating Behaviors, and Eating Disorders
David Šmahel, Hana Macháčková, Martina Šmahelová, Michal Čevelíček, Carlos A. Almenara, Jana Holubčíková
ISBN 978-3-319-93221-7 Chapter 10, first page: 177, year: 2018
12. Young People’s Use of Digital Health Technologies in the Global North: Narrative Review
Journal of Medical Internet Research vol: 23, issue: 1, first page: e18286, year: 2021
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2016 Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace