Participation in social network sites: Associations with the quality of offline and online friendships in German preadolescents and adolescents

Abstract

This paper compares offline friendships of preadolescents and adolescents with and without a social network site (SNS) account, and for those who reported having an SNS account, it compares their offline and online friendships. The sample consisted of 1,890 preadolescents and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years, 72.1% of them with an SNS account. All participants had to describe a good friend whom they meet predominantly offline. The participants with an SNS account additionally had to describe a good SNS friend whom they meet predominantly online. Questionnaires were used to assess perceived friendship quality and the topics primarily discussed with friends. The results showed that participating at an SNS was not connected to friendship quality. However, participants without an SNS account discussed personal problems less often with their offline friends. Participants who reported having an SNS account perceived higher offline compared to online friendship quality. Additionally, female sex, initial offline contact, and frequency of contact had a positive effect on online and offline friendship quality.

Bibliographic citation

Glüer, M., & Lohaus, A. (2016). Participation in social network sites: Associations with the quality of offline and online friendships in German preadolescents and adolescents. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 10(2), Article 2. doi:https://doi.org/10.5817/CP2016-2-2

Keywords

Social network site; social media; friendship quality; preadolescents and adolescents; online and offline friendships

Full Text:

HTML

References

Show references Hide references

Antheunis, M. L., Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2012). The quality of online, offline, and mixed-mode friendships among users of a social networking site. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 6(3), article 6. https://doi.org/10.5817/CP2012-3-6

Baiocco R., Laghi F., Schneider B. H., Dalessio M., Amichai-Hamburger Y., Coplan R. J., … Flament M. (2011). Daily patterns of communication and contact between Italian early adolescents and their friends. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14, 467–471. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2010.0208

Behling, O., & Law, K. S. (2000). Translating questionnaires and other research instruments: Problems and solutions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7–10. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.00157

Bigelow, B. J., & LaGaipa, J. J. (1980). The development of friendship values and choice. In H. C. Foot, A. J. Chapman, & J. R. Smith (Eds.), Friendship and social relations in children (pp. 15–44). New York: John Wiley.

Bryant, J. A., Sanders-Jackson A., & Smallwood A. M. K. (2006) IMing, text messaging and adolescent social networks. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11, 577–592. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2006.00028.x

Bukowski, W. M., Hoza, B., & Boivin, M. (1994). Measuring friendship quality during pre- and early adolescence: The development and psychometric properties of the Friendship Qualities Scale. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 11, 471–484. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407594113011

Desjarlais, M., & Willoughby, T. (2010). A longitudinal study of the relation between adolescent boys’ and girls’ computer use with friends and friendship quality: Support for the social compensation or the rich-get-richer hypothesis? Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 96–905. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.02.004

EFS Survey. (Version 10.1). [Computer Software]. Koeln: QuestBack GmbH.

Gross, E. F. (2004). Adolescent Internet use: What we expect, what teens report. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 25, 633–649. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2004.09.005

Hartup, W. W., & Stevens, N. (1997). Friendships and adaptation in the life course. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 355–370. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.121.3.355

Hartup, W. W., & Stevens, N. (1999). Friendships and adaptation across the life span. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8, 76–79. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.00018

Laghi F., Vitoroulis I., Schneider B. H., Coplan R. J., Baiocco R., Amichai-Hamburger Y., … Flament M. (2013). Knowing when not to use the internet: Shyness and adolescents’ on-line and off-line interactions with friends. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 51–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.07.015

Lenhart, A., Madden, M., & Hitlin, P. (2005). Teens and technology: Youth are leading the transition to a fully wired and mobile nation. Washington DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/files/old-media/Files/Reports/2005/PIP_Teens_Tech_July2005web.pdf.pdf

McKenna, K., Green, A. S., & Gleason, M. E. G. (2002). Relationship formation on the Internet: What is the big attraction? Journal of Social Issues, 58, 1, 9–31. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-4560.00246

Mendelson, M. J., & Aboud, F. (1999). Measuring friendship quality in late adolescents and young adults: McGill friendship questionnaires. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 31, 130–132. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0087080

Mendelson, M. J., & Aboud, F. (2012). McGill Friendship Questionnaire & Friendship Functions (MFQ-FF). Measurement instrument database for the social science. https://doi.org/10.13072/midss.170

Mesch, G. S. (2001). Social relationships and Internet use among adolescents in Israel. Social Science Quarterly, 82, 329-340. https://doi.org/10.1111/0038-4941.00026

Mesch, G. S., & Talmud, I. (2006a). The quality of online and offline relationships: The role of multiplexity and duration of social relationships. Information Society, 22, 137–148. https://doi.org/10.1080/01972240600677805

Mesch, G. S., & Talmud, I. (2006b). Online friendship formation, communication channels, and social closeness. International Journal of Internet Science, 1, 29–44.

Mesch, G. S., & Talmud, I. (2007). Similarity and the quality of online and offline social relationships among adolescents in Israel. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 17, 455–465. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2007.00529.x

Mesch, G. S., & Talmud, I. (2010). Wired youth: The social world of adolescence in the information age. London: Routledge.

MFS (Medienpädagogischer Forschungsverbund Südwest). (2014). Jugend, Information, (Multi)Media (JIM2013). Basisstudie zum Medienumgang 12- bis 19-Jähriger in Deutschland [Survey of 12 to 19 years old adolescents’ media use in Germany]. Retrieved from http://www.mpfs.de/fileadmin/JIM-pdf14/JIMStudie2014.pdf

Newcombe, A.F., & Bagwell, C.L. (1995). Children’s friendship relations: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 306–347. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.2.306

Parker, J. G., Rubin, K. H., Erath, S. A., Wojslawowicz, J. C., & Buskirk, A. A. (2006). Peer relationships, child development, and adjustment: A developmental psychopathology perspective. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Theory and method: Vol. 1. Developmental psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 419–493). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Punamäki, R.-L., Wallenius, M. Hölttö, H., Nygård, C-H., & Rimpelä, A. (2009). The associations between information and communication technology (ICT) and peer and parent relations in early adolescence. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 33, 556–564. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025409343828

Reich, S. M., Subrahmanyam, K., & Espinoza, G. (2012). Friending, IMing, and hanging out face-to-face: Overlap in adolescents’ online and offline social networks. Developmental Psychology, 48, 356–368. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026980

Rideout, V. J., Foehr, U. G., & Roberts, D. F. (2010). Generation M2: Media in the lives of 8- to 18-year-olds. Menlo Park, CA: The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation.

Schouten, A. P., Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2009). An experimental test of processes underlying self-disclosure in computer-mediated communication. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 3(2), article 3. Retrieved from http://cyberpsychology.eu/view.php?cisloclanku=2009111601&article=3

Selman, R. L. (1981). The child as friendship philosopher. In S. R. Asher & J. M. Gottman (Eds.), The development of children's friendship (pp. 242–272). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Statistisches Bundesamt. (2013). Ausländische Schüler/innen nach Schularten und Anteilen. Retrieved from https://www.destatis.de/..../AllgemeinBildendeBeruflicheAuslaendischeSchueler.html

Subrahmanyam, K., Reich, S. M., Waechter, N., & Espinoza, G. (2008). Online and offline social networks: Use of social networking sites by emerging adults. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 420–433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2008.07.003

Tang, L. (2010). Development of online friendship in different social spaces. Information, Communication and Society, 13, 615–633. https://doi.org/10.1080/13691180902998639

Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2007). Preadolescents’ and adolescents’ online communication and their closeness to friends. Developmental Psychology, 43, 267–277. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.2.267

Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2009). Social consequences of the Internet for adolescents: A decade of research. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01595.x

Valkenburg, P. M. Peter, J., & Schouten, A. P. (2006). Friend networking sites and their relationship to adolescents’ well-being and social self-esteem. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 9, 584–590. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2006.9.584

Valkenburg, P. M., Sumter, S. R., & Peter, J. (2011). Gender differences in online and offline self-disclosure in pre-adolescence and adolescence. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29, 253–269. https://doi.org/10.1348/2044-835X.002001

Williams, A. L., Merten, M. J. (2008). A review of online social networking profiles by adolescents: Implications for future research and intervention. Adolescence, 43, 253–274.

https://doi.org/10.5817/CP2016-2-2


Crossref Cited-by (4)

The listed references are provided by Cited-by (Crossref service) and thus do not represent the full list of sources citing the article.

1. The reciprocal relations between facebook relationship maintenance behaviors and adolescents’ closeness to friends
Ann Rousseau, Eline Frison, Steven Eggermont
Journal of Adolescence  vol: 76,  first page: 173,  year: 2019  
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2019.09.001

2. Digital support seeking in adolescent girls: A qualitative study of affordances and limitations
Erin Mackenzie, Anne McMaugh, Penny Van Bergen
Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace  vol: 14,  issue: 3,  year: 2020  
https://doi.org/10.5817/CP2020-3-5

3. Entwicklungspsychologie des Jugendalters
Michael Glüer
ISBN 978-3-662-55792-1  Chapter 9,  first page: 197,  year: 2018  
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-55792-1_9

4. Social Media Use and Offline Interpersonal Outcomes during Youth: A Systematic Literature Review
Rebecca Dredge, Lara Schreurs
Mass Communication and Society  vol: 23,  issue: 6,  first page: 885,  year: 2020  
https://doi.org/10.1080/15205436.2020.1810277