A psychologically “embedded” approach to designing games for prosocial causes
Adachi, P. J. C., Hodson, G., Willoughby, T., & Zanette, S. (2014). Brothers and sisters in arms: Intergroup cooperation in a violent shooter game can reduce intergroup bias. Psychology of Violence. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037407
Allianz Knowledge (2010). CEO2 [Flash game]. Munich, Germany: Allianz Knowledge. Retrieved from http://knowledge.allianz.com/ceo2/en_ext.html
Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (2013). Blindspot: Hidden biases of good people. New York: Delacorte Press.
Bandura, A. (2002). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. Media effects: Advances in Theory and Research, 2, 121–153.
Bogost, I. (2007). Persuasive games: The expressive power of videogames. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Brehm, J.W. (1966). A theory of psychological reactance. New York: Academic Press.
Brehm, S. S., & Brehm, J. W. (2013). Psychological reactance: A theory of freedom and control. New York: Academic Press.
Cialdini, R. B., Demaine, L. J., Sagarin, B. J., Barrett, D. W., Rhoads, K., & Winter, P. L. (2006). Managing social norms for persuasive impact. Social Influence, 1, 3–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/15534510500181459
Cialdini, R. B., Reno, R. R., & Kallgren, C. A. (1990). A focus theory of normative conduct: Recycling the concept of norms to reduce littering in public places. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 1015–1026. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1245
Czopp, A. M., Monteith, M. J., & Mark, A. Y. (2006). Standing up for a change: Reducing bias through interpersonal confrontation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 784–803. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1994
Dillard, J. P., & Shen, L. (2005). On the nature of reactance and its role in persuasive health communication. Communication Monographs, 72, 144–168. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637750500111815
Doyen, S., Klein, O., Simons, D. J., & Cleeremans, A. (2014). On the other side of the mirror: Priming in cognitive and social psychology. Social Cognition, 32(Supplement), 12–32. https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.2014.32.supp.12
Ewoldsen, D. R., Eno, C. A., Okdie, B. M., Velez, J. A., Guadagno, R. E., & DeCoster, J. (2012). Effect of playing violent video games cooperatively or competitively on subsequent cooperative behavior. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15, 277–280. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2011.0308
Ferguson, C. J. (2007). The good, the bad and the ugly: A meta-analytic review of positive and negative effects of violent video games. Psychiatric Quarterly, 78, 309–316. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11126-007-9056-9
Ferguson, C. J. (2013). Violent video games and the Supreme Court: Lessons for the scientific community in the wake of Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association. American Psychologist, 68, 57–74. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030597
Ferguson, C. J. (in press). Do angry birds make for angry children? A meta-analysis of video game Influences on children’s and adolescents’ aggression, mental health, prosocial behavior and academic performance. Perspectives on Psychological Science.
Ferguson, C. J., & Olson, C. K. (2013). Friends, fun, frustration and fantasy: Child motivations for video game play. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 154–164. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-012-9284-7
Flanagan, M., & Nissenbaum, H. F. (2014). Values at Play in Digital Games. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Galinsky, A. D., Magee, J. C., Inesi, M. E., & Gruenfeld, D. H. (2006). Power and perspectives not taken. Psychological Science, 17, 1068–1074. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01824.x
Genesis Energy (2007). ElectroCity [Flash game]. Houston, TX: Genesis Energy. Retrieved from http://www.electrocity.co.nz/Game/game.aspx
GLS Studios (2013). Fair Play [PC Game]. Madison, WI: GLS Studios.
Grandpre, J., Alvaro, E. M., Burgoon, M., Miller, C. H., & Hall, J. R. (2003). Adolescent reactance and anti-smoking campaigns: A theoretical approach. Health Communication, 15, 349–366. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327027HC1503_6
Granic, I., Lobel, A., & Engels, R. C. (2014). The benefits of playing video games. American Psychologist, 69, 66–78. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034857
Green, M. C., & Brock, T. C. (2000). The role of transportation in the persuasiveness of public narratives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 701–721. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.521
Half the Sky Movement LLC (2013). Half the Sky Movement: The Game [Facebook game]. Beijing, China: Half the Sky Movement LLC. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/HalftheGame/app_203351739677351
Hass, R. G. (1984). Perspective taking and self-awareness: Drawing an E on your forehead. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 788–798. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2068
Hyers, L. L. (2007). Resisting prejudice every day: Exploring women’s assertive responses to anti-Black racism, anti-Semitism, heterosexism, and sexism. Sex Roles, 56, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-006-9142-8
Kaufman, G., & Flanagan, M. (2015). How awkward: A party game to reduce workplace biases. Manuscript under review.
Kaufman, G. F., & Flanagan, M. (2013). Lost in translation: Comparing the impact of an analog and digital version of a public health game on players’ perceptions, attitudes, and cognitions. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations (IJGCMS), 5, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.4018/jgcms.2013070101
Kaufman, G., Flanagan, M., & Seidman, M. (2015). Creating stealth game interventions for attitude and behavior change: An “Embedded Design” model. In Proceedings of the Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA) Conference, Luneburg, Germany.
Kaufman, G. F., & Libby, L. K. (2012). Changing beliefs and behavior through experience-taking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027525
Knowles, E. S., & Linn, J. A. (2004). The importance of resistance to persuasion. In E. S. Knowles & J. A. Linn (Eds.), Resistance and persuasion (pp. 3–11). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Markey, P. M., Markey, C. N., & French, J. E. (2014). Violent video games and real-world violence: Rhetoric versus data. Psychology of Popular Media Culture. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000030
Metro Trains Melbourne (2013). Dumb Ways to Die [Mobile game]. Melbourne, Australia: Metro Trains Melbourne.
mtvU (2006). Darfur Is Dying [Flash game]. New York, NY: mtvU. Retrieved from http://www.darfurisdying.com/
Nabi, R. L., Moyer-Gusé, E., & Byrne, S. (2007). All joking aside: A serious investigation into the persuasive effect of funny social issue messages. Communication Monographs, 74, 29-54. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637750701196896
Phillips, S. T., & Ziller, R. C. (1997). Toward a theory and measure of the nature of nonprejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 420–434. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.110
Plant, E. A., & Devine, P. G. (1998). Internal and external motivation to respond without prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 811-832. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3518.104.22.1681
Play2Prevent Lab (2013). PlayForward: Elm City Stories [iPad game]. New Haven, CT: Play2Prevent Lab.
Pronin, E., Lin, D. Y., & Ross, L. (2002). The bias blind spot: Perceptions of bias in self versus others. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 369–381. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167202286008
Przybylski, A. K., Weinstein, N., Murayama, K., Lynch, M. F., & Ryan, R. M. (2011). The ideal self at play: The appeal of video games that let you be all you can be. Psychological Science, 23, 69–76. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611418676
Quick, B. L., & Considine, J. R. (2008). Examining the use of forceful language when designing exercise persuasive messages for adults: A test of conceptualizing reactance arousal as a two-step process. Health Communication, 23, 483–491. https://doi.org/10.1080/10410230802342150
Roccas, S., & Brewer, M. B. (2002). Social identity complexity. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6, 88–106. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327957PSPR0602_01
Russoniello, C. V., O’Brien, K., & Parks, J. M. (2009). The effectiveness of casual video games in improving mood and decreasing stress. Journal of Cyber Therapy and Rehabilitation, 2, 53–66.
Sherman, D. K., Cohen, G. L., Nelson, L. D., Nussbaum, A. D., Bunyan, D. P., & Garcia, J. (2009). Affirmed yet unaware: Exploring the role of awareness in the process of self-affirmation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 745–764. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015451
Slater, M. D., & Rouner, D. (2002). Entertainment-education and elaboration likelihood: Understanding the processing of narrative persuasion. Communication Theory, 12, 173–191.
Tiltfactor Laboratory. (2011). Pox: Save the People [Board game]. United States: Author.
Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2010). Construal-level theory of psychological distance. Psychological Review, 117, 440–463. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018963
Wilson, M. (2002). Six views of embodied cognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9, 625–636. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03196322
Wilson, T. D., & Brekke, N. (1994). Mental contamination and mental correction: Unwanted influences on judgments and evaluations. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 117-142. https://doi.org/10.1037//0033-2909.116.1.117
Wilson, T. D., & Schooler, J. W. (1991). Thinking too much: Introspection can reduce the quality of preferences and decisions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 181–192. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.124
Worchel, S., & Brehm, J. W. (1970). Effect of threats to attitudinal freedom as a function of agreement with the communicator. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 14, 18–22. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0028620