The relationship between Facebook attachment and obsessive-compulsive disorder severity


Despite the widespread use of social networking sites (SNS) such as Facebook, an adequate understanding of their impact on the users’ mental health is still lacking. The present study intends to expand on the current understanding of the linkage between social networking site use and mental health. Our study explored how Facebook use may be associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), with the inclusion of obsessive-compulsive beliefs as a mediator. One hundred and fifty-six undergraduate students completed the questionnaire given. Overall, Facebook use contributed to OCD severity through obsessive-compulsive beliefs as the mediator. The present study also yielded other relevant results for cyberpsychology that may help pave the way for future studies.

Facebook; obsessive-compulsive disorder; obsessive beliefs
Author biographies

Soon-Li Lee

Author photo Soon Li, Lee is a PhD candidate at Monash University Malaysia. His research interests include the influence of social networking sites on the users’ well-being, and psychometrics.

Miriam Sang-Ah Park

Author photo Dr. Miriam Sang-Ah Park obtained her Bachelor of Science (BSc) with a major in Psychology from University of Toronto, Canada, where she developed particular interests in sociocultural influences on the selfhood, perceptions and general beliefs. She undertook her PhD studies under the supervision of Professor Robin Goodwin at Brunel University, London, UK. Her primary areas are social, (cross-) cultural and political psychology, and her research focuses on topics such as social change and its implications for individual values, family views and political beliefs, cultural orientations and self-construals, and family democratisation in different societies.

Cai-Lian Tam

Author photo Dr. Tam Cai Lian is the Senior Lecturer and a licensed counselling psychologist from Monash University Malaysia. She is a registered counsellor from the Board of Counsellors Malaysia with special interest in the variety of challenges facing adolescents in Malaysia. Currently, Dr. Tam is the advisor for People Development Counselling (PDC) and the coordinator for the Master of Professional Counselling for Monash University Malaysia. She has involved actively in conducting research and providing consultation related with coping and relaxation skills.

Alavi, S. S., Maracy, M. R., Jannatifard, F., & Eslami, M. (2011). The effect of psychiatric symptoms on the internet addiction disorder in Isfahan’s university students. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 16, 793-800.

Anderson, B., Fagan, P., Woodnutt, T., & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2012). Facebook psychology: Popular questions answered by research. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 1, 23-37.

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.

Curtin, F., & Schulz, P. (1998). Multiple correlations and Bonferroni’s correction. Biological Psychiatry, 44, 775-777.

Elphinston, R. A., & Noller, P. (2011). Time to face it! Facebook intrusion and the implications for romantic jealousy and relationship satisfaction. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14, 631-635.

Faull, M., Joseph, S., Meaden, A., & Lawrence, T. (2004). Obsessive beliefs and their relation to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 11, 158-167.

Foa, E. B., & Kozak, M. J. (1986). Emotional processing of fear. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 20-35.

Foa, E. B., Huppert, J. D., Leiberg, S., Langner, R., Kichic, R., Hajcak, G., & Salkovskis, P. M. (2002). The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory: Development and validation of a short version. Psychological Assessment, 14, 485-496.

Ha, H. H., Kim, S. Y., Bae, S. C., Bae, S., Kim, H., Sim, M., . . . Cho, S. C. (2007). Depression and internet addiction in adolescents. Psychopathology, 40, 424-430.

Hofmann, W., Vohs, K. D., & Baumeister, R. F. (2012). What people desire, feel conflicted about, and try to resist in everyday life. Psychological Science, 23, 582-588.

Horn, J. L. (1965). A rationale and test for the number of factors in factor analysis. Psychometrika, 30, 179-185.

Hubbard, R., & Allen, S. J. (1987). An empirical comparison of alternative methods for principal component extraction. Journal of Business Research, 15, 173-190.

Inozu, M., Karanci, A. N., & Clark, D. A. (2012). Why are religious individuals more obsessional? The role of mental control beliefs and guilt in Muslims and Christians. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 43, 959-966.

Jang, K. S., Hwang, S. Y., & Choi, J. Y. (2008). Internet addiction and psychiatric symptoms among Korean adolescents. Journal of School Health, 78, 165-171.

Junco, R. (2012). Too much face and not enough book: The relationship between multiple indices of Facebook use and academic performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 187-198.

Kaiser, H. (1970). A second generation Little Jiffy. Psychometrika, 35, 401-415.

Kaiser, H. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39, 31-36.

Ladouceur, R., Rhéaume, J., & Aublet, F. (1997). Excessive responsibility in obsessional concerns: A fine-grained experimental analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 423-427.

Ladouceur, R., Rhéaume, J., Freeston, M. H., Aublet, F., Jean, K., Lachance, S., . . . De Pokomandy-Morin, K. (1995). Experimental manipulations of responsibility: An analogue test for models of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 937-946.

Lopatka, C., & Rachman, S. (1995). Perceived responsibility and compulsive checking: An experimental analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 673-684.

Marks, I. (1990). Behavioural (non‐chemical) addictions. British Journal of Addiction, 85, 1389-1394.

Moreno, M. A., Christakis, D. A., Egan, K. G., Jelenchick, L. A., Cox, E., Young, H., . . . Becker, T. (2011). A pilot evaluation of associations between displayed depression references on Facebook and self-reported depression using a clinical scale. Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research, 39, 295-304.

Moreno, M. A., Jelenchick, L. A., Egan, K. G., Cox, E., Young, H., Gannon, K. E., & Becker, T. (2011). Feeling bad on Facebook: Depression disclosures by college students on a social networking site. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 447-455.

Moulding, R., Anglim, J., Nedeljkovic, M., Doron, G., Kyrios, M., & Ayalon, A. (2011). The Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ): Examination in nonclinical samples and development of a short version. Assessment, 18, 357-374.

Moulding, R., Doron, G., Kyrios, M., & Nedeljkovic, M. (2009). Mediated and direct effects of general control beliefs on obsessive compulsive symptoms. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 41, 84-92.

Moulding, R., Kyrios, M., Doron, G., & Nedeljkovic, M. (2007). Autogenous and reactive obsessions: Further evidence for a two-factor model of obsessions. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21, 677-690.

Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group. (1997). Cognitive assessment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 667-681.

Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group. (2001). Development and initial validation of the obsessive beliefs questionnaire and the interpretation of intrusions inventory. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 987-1006.

Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group. (2005). Psychometric validation of the obsessive belief questionnaire and interpretation of intrusions inventory-Part 2: Factor analyses and testing of a brief version. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 1527-1542

Ong, E. Y., Ang, R. P., Ho, J., Lim, J. C., Goh, D. H., Lee, C. S., & Chua, A. Y. (2011). Narcissism, extraversion and adolescents’ self-presentation on Facebook. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 180-185.

Osmoush, K. S. A., Yaseen, S. G., & Alma’aitah, M. A. (2012). The impact of Arab cultural values on online social networking: The case of Facebook. Computer in Human Behavior, 28, 2387-2399.

Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 717-731.

Rosen, L. D., Whaling, K., Rab, S., Carrier, L. M., Cheever, N. A. (2013). Is Facebook creating “iDisorder”? The link between clinical symptoms of psychiatric disorders and technology use, attitudes and anxiety. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 1243-1254.

Salkovskis, P. M. (1989). Cognitive-behavioural factors and the persistence of intrusive thoughts in obsessional problems. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 27, 677-682.

Shafran, R. (1997). The manipulation of responsibility in obsessive‐compulsive disorder. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 397-407.

Shapira, N. A., Goldsmith, T. D., Keck, P. E., Khosla, M. U., & McElroy, S. L. (2000). Psychiatric features of individuals with problematic internet use. Journal of Affective Disorders, 57, 267-272.

Smith, A. R., Hames, J. L., & Joiner Jr, T. E. (2013). Status update: Maladaptive Facebook usage predicts increases in body dissatisfaction and bulimic symptoms. Journal of Affective Disorders, 149, 235-240.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.

Woods, C. M., Tolin, D. F., & Abramowitz, J. S. (2004). Dimensionality of the obsessive beliefs questionnaire (OBQ). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26, 113-125.

Zwick, W. R., & Velicer, W. F. (1986). Comparison of five rules for determining the number of components to retain. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 432-442.





PDF views