Personality and Motivational Factors Predicting Internet Abuse at Work

Vol.5,No.1(2011)

Abstract
The present study investigates whether a personality variable (Locus of Control) and motivational factors rooted in Uses & Gratifications theory (the desire for virtual community, beautiful websites, maintaining interpersonal relations, and the desire for diversion & entertainment) predict Internet abuse at work in the form of shopping, searching for information unrelated to work, and communicating with friends. Data were analyzed for 320 participants, all of whom were employed and had access to computers at work. Results indicate that external Locus of Control predicts all three forms of Internet abuse. The desire to use the Internet for diversion and entertainment purposes predicts only online shopping and searching for non-work-related information. Results suggest that factors predicting some forms of Internet abuse may not predict other forms of Internet abuse. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

Keywords:
locus of control; uses and gratifications theory; Internet abuse; cyberloafing
Author biographies

Jengchung V. Chen

Author photo Jengchung Victor Chen is an Associate Professor in the Institute of International Management at National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. He graduated from the University of Hawaii with Ph.D. degree in CIS in 2002. He got M.S. in Computer Science from Polytechnic Institute, New York University and M.S. in Management and Policy from Harriman School, State University of New York – Stony Brook. Dr. Chen has published more than 35 articles in refereed journals such as Information & Management, Decision Support Systems, European Journal of Information Systems, CyberPsychology & Behavior, and Journal of Database Management . He serves as the President of International Chinese Information Systems Association in 2010-2011. He is also the President-Elect of the Association for Chinese Management Educators and the Conference Chair of the 21st International Conference on the Pacific Rim Management in 2011.

William H. Ross

Author photo William Ross (Ph.D., Industrial/Organizational Psychology, University of Illinois) is Professor of Management at the University of Wisconsin - La Crosse. He teaches courses in Human Resource Management, Organizational Behavior, Negotiation, and Labor-Management Relations. He has published articles on managerial implications of the Internet and other forms of technology (such as electronic monitoring), trust, and procedural design (such as third-party dispute resolution procedures). His articles have appeared in numerous journals including Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Journal of Database Management, S.A.M. Advanced Management Journal, Journal of Information Privacy and Security, Journal of Applied Psychology, and Personnel Psychology. He serves on the editorial board and as an ad hoc reviewer for several journals.

Hsiao-Han Yang

Author photo Hsiao-Han Yang now works at Taipei Transportation Office, Taiwan and specializes in cable car transportation. She has been working in the field of transportation for five years since earning her MBA degree from National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan.
References

Akman, I., & Mishra, A. (2010). Gender, age, and income differences in Internet usage among employees in organizations. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 482-490.

Barker, V. (2009). Older adolescents' motivations for social network site use: The influence of gender, group identity, and collective self-esteem. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12, 209-213.

Blanchard, A.L., & Henle, C.A. (2008) Correlates of different forms of cyberloafing: The role of norms and external locus of control. Computers in Human Behavior, 24, 1067-1084.

Boneva, B., Kraut, R., & Frohlich, D. (2001). Using e-mail for personal relationships: The difference gender makes. American Behavioral Scientist, 45, 530-550.

Calvert, S. L., Rideout, V. J., Woolard, J. L., Barr, R. F., & Strouse, G. A. (2005). Age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic patterns in early computer use. American Behavioral Scientist, 48, 590-607.

Chak, K., & Leung, L. (2004). Shyness and locus of control as predictors of Internet addiction and Internet use. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7, 559-570.

Charney T. R, & Greenberg B. (2002). Uses and gratifications of the Internet. In C. A. Lin & D. J. Atkin (Eds.), Communication, technology, and society: New media adoption and uses (pp. 379 - 446). Creskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Chen, G. M. (2011). Tweet this: A uses and gratifications perspective on how active Twitter use gratifies a need to connect with others. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(2), 755-762.

Chen, K., Chen, J. V., & Ross, W. H. (2010). Antecedents of online game dependency: The implications of multimedia realism and uses and gratifications theory. Journal of Database Management, 21(2), 69-99.

Chen, J.V., Chen, C.C., & Yang, H.H. (2008). An empirical evaluation of key factors contributing to internet abuse in the workplace. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 108, 87-106.

Chou, C., & Hsiao, M. C. (2000). Internet addiction, usage, gratification, and pleasure experience: the Taiwan college students' case. Computers & Education, 35, 65-80.

Clifford, M. (1976). A revised measure of locus of control. Child Study Journal, 6, 85-90.

Davis, R. A., Flett, G. L., & Besser, A. (2002). Validation of a new scale for measuring problematic Internet use: Implications for pre-employment screening. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 5, 331-345.

De Brabander, B, & Boone, C. (1990). Sex differences in perceived locus of control. The Journal of Social Psychology, 130, 271-272.

Eastman, J. K., & Iyer, R. (2004). The elderly's uses and attitudes towards the Internet. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 21(3), 208-220.

Fang, X., & Yen, D. C. (2006). Demographics and behavior of Internet users in China. Technology in Society, 28, 363-387.

Garrett, R. K., & Danzinger, J. N. (2008). On cyberslacking: Workplace status and personal Internet use at work. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, 287-292.

Griffiths, M. (2003). Internet abuse in the workplace: Issues and concerns for employers and employment counselors. Journal of Employment Counseling, 40(2), 87-96.

Hansemark, O. C. (2003). Need for achievement, locus of control, and the prediction of business start-ups: A longitudinal study. Journal of Economic Psychology, 24, 301-319.

Hyman, G., Stanley, R., & Burrows, G. (1991). The relationship between three multidimensional locus of control scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 51(2), 403-412.

Katz, E., Blumler, J., & Gurevitch, M. (1974). The use of mass communication. Beverly Hills, California: Sage.

Korgaonkar, P. K., & Wolin, L. D. (1999). A multivariate analysis of web usage. Journal of Advertising Research, 39(2), 53-68.

LaRose, R. (2011). Uses and gratifications of Internet addiction. In K. S. Young & C. de Abreu (Eds.), Internet addiction: A handbook and guide to evaluation and treatment (pp. 55-72). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Lee, S, Yoon, S.N., & Kim, J. (2008). The role of pluralistic ignorance in Internet abuse. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 48(3), 38-43.

Levenson, H. (1974). Activism and powerful others: Distinctions within the concept of internal-external control. Journal of Personality Assessment, 38, 377-383.

Lin, C. A. (2007). Interactive media technology and electronic shopping. In C. A. Lin, D. J. Atkin (Eds.), Communication technology and social change: Theory and implications (pp. 203-222). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Lin, H. F. (2006). Understanding behavioral intention to participate in virtual communities. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 9, 540-547.

Macan, T., Trusty, M., & Trimble, S. (1996). Spector's work locus of control scale: Dimensionality and validity evidence. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 56, 349-357.

Magnuson, M. J., & Dundes, L. (2008). Gender differences in "social portraits" reflected in MySpace profiles. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, 239-241.

Mahatanankoon, P., Anandarajan, M., & Igbaria M. (2004). Development of a measure of personal web usage in the workplace. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7, 93-104.

Mottram, A, & Fleming, M.J. (2009). Extraversion, impulsivity, and online group membership as predictors of problematic Internet use. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12, 319-321.

Potosky, D., & Bobko, P. (2001). A model for predicting computer experience from attitudes toward computers. Journal of Business and Psychology, 15, 391-404.

Quantcast. Demographics: Data as of May, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.quantcast.com/qvc.com#demographics

Phillips, J. G., & Reddie, L. (2007). Decisional style and self-reported E-mail use in the workplace. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(5), 2414-2428.

Raacke, J., & Bonds-Raacke, J. (2008). MySpace and Facebook: Applying the uses and gratifications theory to exploring friend-networking sites. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, 169-174.

Roberts, L., & Ho, R. (1996). Development of an Australian health locus of control scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 20, 629-639.

Rock, W., Hira, T. K., & Loibl, C. (2010). The use of the Internet as a source of financial information by households in the United States: A national survey. International Journal of Management, 27, 754-769.

Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80, 1-28.

Roy, S. K. (2009). Internet uses and gratifications: A survey in the Indian context. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(4), 878-886.

Siibak, A. (2009). Constructing the self through photo selection: Visual impression management on social networking websites. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 3(1). Retrieved from http://www.cyberpsychology.eu/view.php?cisloclanku=2009061501&article=1

Song, I., Larose, R., Eastin, M. S, & Lin, C.A. (2004). Internet gratifications and Internet addiction: On the uses and abuses of new media. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7, 384-394.

Southern Taiwan Science Park (2011, January 20). Statistics: Employee's educational backgrounds. Retrieved from http://www.stsipa.gov.tw/STSIPA_UPLOAD/Statistic/1281526257525.pdf

Teo, T. S. H., & Lim, V. K. G. (2000). Gender differences in Internet usage and task preferences. Behaviour & Information Technology, 19(4), 283-295.

Stafford T. F. (2008). Social and usage-process motivations for consumer Internet access. Journal of Organizational and End User Computing, 20, 1-21.

Vitak, J., Crouse, J., & LaRose, R. (2011). Personal Internet use at work: Understanding cyberslacking. Computers in Human Behavior, in press. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2011.03.002.

Vromen, A. (2007). Australian young people's participatory practices and internet use. Information, Communication & Society, 10(1), 48-68.

Weibel, D., Wissmath, B., & Groner, R. (2010). Motives for creating a private website and personality of personal homepage owners in terms of extraversion and heuristic orientation. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 4(1). Retrieved from http://cyberpsychology.eu/view.php?cisloclanku=2010053101&article=5

Weiner, B. (1974). Achievement motivation and attribution theory. Morristown, N.J.: General Learning Press.

Weiser E. B. (2000). Gender differences in internet use patterns and Internet application preferences: A two-sample comparison. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 3, 167-178.

Woodrow, J. (1990). Locus of control and student teacher computer attitudes. Computers in Education, 14, 421-432.

Wu, J., Wang, S., & Tsai, H. (2010). Falling in love with online games: The uses and gratifications perspective. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(6), 1862-1871.

Young, K. S. (1998). Caught in the net: How to recognize the signs of Internet addiction and a winning strategy for recovery. New York, NY: Wiley.

Young, K. S. (2007). Cognitive behavior therapy with Internet addicts: Treatment outcomes and implications. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10, 671-679.

Yung, K. C., Juran, K., & McMillan, S. J. (2009). Motivators for the intention to use mobile TV. International Journal of Advertising, 28(1), 147-167.

Metrics

5125

Views

7893

HTML views