"I'll poke you. You'll poke me!" Self-disclosure, social attraction, predictability and trust as important predictors of Facebook relationships
Facebook; social network sites; structural equation modeling; friendship; uncertainty reduction theory
Acar, A. (2008). Antecedents and consequences of online social networking behavior: The case of Facebook. Journal of Website Promotion, 3, 62-83.
Altman, I., & Taylor, D. (1973). Social penetration: The development of interpersonal relationships. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winstron.
Anderson, T. A., & Emmers-Sommer, T. M. (2006). Predictors of relationship satisfaction in online romantic relationships. Communication Studies, 57, 153-172.
Arnett, J. J. (2004). Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens through the twenties. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ayres, J. (1989). The impact of communication apprehension and interaction structure on initial interactions. Communication Monographs, 56, 75-88.
Bargh, J. A., McKenna, K. Y. A., & Fitzsimons, G. M. (2002). Can you see the real me? Activation and expression of the “true self” on the Internet. Journal of Social Issues, 58, 33-48.
Bargh, J. A. & McKenna, K. Y. A. (2004). The Internet and social life. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 573–590.
Berg, J. H., & Derlega, V. J. (1987). Themes in the study of self-disclosure. In V. J. Derlega, & J. H. Berg (Eds.), Self-disclosure: Theory, research, and therapy (pp. 1-8). New York: Plenum Press.
Berger, C. R. (1987). Communicating under uncertainty. In M. E. Roloff & G. R. Miller (Eds.), Interpersonal processes (pp. 39-62). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Berger, C. R., & Calabrese, R. J. (1975). Some explorations in initial interaction and beyond: Toward a developmental theory of interpersonal communication. Human Communication Research, 1, 99-112.
boyd, d. (2006). Friends, friendsters, and top 8: Writing community into being on social network sites. First Monday, 11(12). Retrieved July 1, 2007, from http://firstmonday.org/issue/....
boyd, d. (2008). Why youth (heart) social network sites: The role of networked publics in teenage social life. In D. Buckingham (Ed.), Youth, Identity, and Digital Media (pp. 119 – 142). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Brandt, D. R. (1979). On linking social performance with social competence: Some relations between communication style and attributions of interpersonal attractiveness and effectiveness. Human Communication Research, 5, 223-237.
Byrne, B. M. (2001). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Mahwah, NJ: LEA.
Chan, D. K.-S., & Cheng, G. H.-L. (2004). A comparison of offline and online friendship qualities at different stages of relationship development. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 21, 305-320.
Chung, D. (2003). I am not a lonely person any more: Interpersonal relationships in computer-mediated communication. Paper presented at the annual meeting of International Communication Association, San Diego, CA.
Collins, N. L., & Miller, L. C. (1994). Self-disclosure and liking: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 457-475.
comScore. (2008). “Top friends” ranks as most engaged Facebook application among U.S. Internet users in November 2007. Retrieved December 10, 2008 from http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?press=2021
Cote, J. E. (2006). Emerging adulthood as an institutionalized moratorium: Risks and benefits to identity formation. In J. J. Arnett & J. L. Tanner (Eds.), Emerging adults in America: Coming of age in the 21st century (pp. 85−116). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Craig, E., Igiel, M., Wright, K., Cunningham, C., & Ploeger, N. (2007). “Will you be my friend”: Computer-mediated relational development on Facebook.com. International Communication Association (ICA) Annual Meeting.
Cummings, J., Butler, B., & Kraut, R. (2002). The quality of online social relationships. Communications of the ACM, 45, 103–8.
Dainton, M., & Aylor, B. (2001). A relational uncertainty analysis of jealousy, trust, and maintenance in long-distance versus geographically close relationships. Communication Quarterly, 49, 172-188.
Derlega, V.L., Metts, S., Petronio, S., Margulis, S. T. (1993). Self disclosure. London: Sage.
Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of Facebook “friends:” Social capital and college students’ use of online social network sites. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12, 1143-1168.
Feng, J., Lazar, J., & Preece, J. (2004). Empathic and predictable communication influences online interpersonal trust. Behavior and Information Technology, 23, 97-106.
Garson, G. D. (2009). Structural equation modeling. Retrieved on October 21, 2009 from http://faculty.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/PA765/...
Gennaro, C. D., & Dutton, W. H. (2007). Reconfiguring friendships: Social relationships and the Internet. Information, Communication & Society, 10, 591-618.
Hair, J., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Haythornthwaite, C. (2002). Strong, weak, and latent ties and the impact of new media. The Information Society, 18, 385-401.
Joinson, A. N. (2001). Self-disclosure in computer-mediated communication: The role of self awareness and visual anonymity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 31, 177-192. Kazeniac, A. (2009). Social networks: Facebook takes over top spot, Twitter climbs. Retrieved February 17, 2009 from http://faculty.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/PA765/structur.htm...
Kim, N., Lee, J. E., & Park, J. Y. (2006). “Hi! My name is Clora”: The effects of self-disclosing agents on the attitude and behavior of users. International Communication Association, 2006 Annual Meeting, 1-38.
Kline, R. B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.
Kraut, R., Kiesler, S., Boneva, B., Cummings, J., Helgeson, V., & Crawford, A. (2002). Internet paradox revisited. Journal of Social Issues, 58, 49–74.
Krikorian, D. H., Lee, J., Chock, T. M., & Harms, C. (2000). Isn’t that spatial; Distance and communication in a 2-D virtual environment. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 5(4). Retrived June 20, 2009 from http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol5/...
Levine, D. (2000). Virtual attraction: what rocks your boat. Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 3, 565-573.
MacIntyre, P. D., Babin, P. A., & Clement, R. (1999). Willingness to communicate: Antecedents & consequences. Communication Quarterly, 47, 215-229.
McAllister, H. A., & Bregman, N. J. (1983). Self-disclosure and liking: An integration theory approach. Journal of Personality, 51, 202-212.
McCroskey, J. C., & McCain, T. A. (1974). The measurement of interpersonal attraction. Speech Monographs, 41, 261-266.
McKenna, K. Y. A., & Bargh, J. A. (2000). Plan 9 from cyberspace: The implications of the internet for personality and social psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4, 57-75.
McKenna, K. Y. A., Green, A. S. & Gleason, M. E. J. (2002). Relationship formation on the Internet: What’s the big attraction? Journal of Social Issues, 58, 9–31.
Mack, D., Behler, A., Roberts, B., & Rimland, E. (2007). Reaching students with Facebook: Data and best practices. Electronic Journal of Academic and Special Librarianship, 8(2). Retrieved September 19, 2009 from http://southernlibrarianship.icaap.org/content/v08n02/mack_d01.html
Netemeyer, R. G., Bearden, W. O., & Sharma, S. (2003). Scaling procedures: Issues and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Park, N., Jin, B., & Jin, S. (2009). Motivations, impression management, and self-disclosure in social network sites. Presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Chicago, IL.
Parks, M. R., & Adelman, M. B. (1983). Communication networks and the development of romantic relationships: An expansion of uncertainty reduction theory. Human Communication Research, 10, 55-79.
Parks, M. R., & Floyd, K. (1996). Making friends in cyberspace. Journal of Communication, 46, 1-17.
Pennebaker, J. W. (1989). Confession, inhibition, and disease. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 211-244). New York: Academic Press.
Peter, J., Valkenburg, P. M., & Schouten, A. P. (2005). Developing a model of adolescent friendship formation on the internet. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 8, 423-430.
Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5) 1–6.
Ramirez, A., Jr., Walther, J. B., Burgoon, J. K., & Sunnafrank, M. (2002). Information seeking strategies, uncertainty, and computer-mediated communication: Toward a conceptual model. Human Communication Research, 28, 213-228.
Rempel, J. K., Holmes, J. G., & Zanna, M. P. (1985). Trust in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 95-112.
Sheldon, P. (2008). The relationship between unwillingness to communicate and students’ Facebook use. Journal of Media Psychology, 20(2), 67-75.
Sheldon, P., & Honeycutt, J. (2008). A structural equation model of oral communication and Facebook use. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association, San Diego: CA.
Steinfield, C., Ellison, N., & Lampe, C. (2008). Social Capital, Self-esteem, and Use of Online Social Network Sites: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 434−445
Steinfield, C. B., & Fulk, J. (1990). The theory imperative. In J. Fulk & C. B. Steinfield (Eds.), Organizations and communication technology (pp. 13-25). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Subrahmanyam, K., Reich, S. M., Waechter, N., & Espinoza, G. (2008). Online and offline social networks: Use of social networking sites by emerging adults. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 420-433.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (1996). Using multivariate statistics (3rd ed.). New York: Harper Collins.
Tapscott, D. (1998). Growing up digital: the rise of the Net generation. New York: McGraw- Hill.
Tidwell, L. C., & Walther, J. B. (2002). Computer-mediated effects on disclosure, impressions, and interpersonal evaluations: Getting to know one another a bit at a time. Human Communication Research, 28, 317-348.
Walther, J.B. (1992). Interpersonal effects in computer-mediated interaction: a relational perspective. Communication Research, 19, 52–90.
Walther, J. B. (1995). Relational aspects of computer-mediated communication: experimental observations over time. Organizational Science, 6, 186–203.
Walther, J. B. (1996). Computer-mediated communication: Impersonal, interpersonal, and hyperpersonal interaction. Communication Research 23, 3–43.
Walther, J. B. (2008). The social information processing theory of computer-mediated communication. In L. Baxter & D. O. Braithwaite, (Eds.), Engaging theories in interpersonal communication. Multiple perspectives (pp. 391-404). London: Sage.
Walther, J. B., Anderson, J. F., & Park, D. W. (1994). Interpersonal effects on computer-mediated interaction: A meta-analysis of social and antisocial communication. Communication Research, 21(4), 3-43.
Walther, J. B., & Burgoon, J. K. (1992). Relational communication in computer-mediated interaction. Human Communication Research 19, 50–88.
Wellman, B. (1997). An electronic group is virtually a social network. In S. Kiesler (Ed.), Culture of the Internet (pp. 179-205). Halesdale, NJ: Lawrence Elbraum.
Wellman, B. & Gulia, M. (1999). Net surfers don’t ride alone: virtual communities as communities. In M. Smith & P. Kollock (Eds.), Communities in Cyberspace (pp. 167– 194). New York: Routledge.
Wheeless, L. R., Frymier, A. B., & Thompson, C. A. (1992). A comparison of verbal output and receptivity in relation to attraction and communication satisfaction in interpersonal relationships. Communication Quarterly, 40, 102-115.
Wheeless, L. R., & Grotz, J. (1977). The measurement of trust and its relationship to self-disclosure. Human Communication Research, 3, 250-257.
Yum, Y., & Hara, K. (2005). Computer-mediated relationship development: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11(1). Retrieved October 22, 2006 from http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol11/issue1/...
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Copyright © 2009 Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace