The Effect of Computer Gaming on Subsequent Time Perception

Vol.3,No.1(2009)

Abstract
Losing track of time upon gaming is a phenomenon often reported by players of computer and video games. However, the few studies addressing this issue show mixed results and do therefore not allow final conclusions about the effect of gaming on time perception. Even less is known about whether and how time distortion continues after a play session. Therefore, the present experiment tested the effect of gaming on the perception of time subsequent to a game session at a LAN party. 40 players produced standard time intervals of 10 s and 60 s before and after having played computer games. Results show a significant increase in time productions after gaming for the short interval, indicating that game-induced time losses continue even after a game session. In contrast, the reverse was true for the longer interval. We discuss how this result may be explained in terms of participants’ motivational states during the experiment counteracting subjective time losses.

Keywords:
time perception, computer game, LAN party
Author biographies

Stefanie Luthman

Author photoStefanie Luthman is a Research Associate at the Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom. She has undertaken her PhD studies in psychology where she examined the transfer processes experienced by computer gamers. She is currently working on a project that aims to redesign key aspects of the teaching and learning of physical science and mathematics during the early stages of secondary education. Her research interests are media effects and student engagement and learning.

Thomas Bliesener

Author photoThomas Bliesener is chair in developmental psychology, educational psychology and psychology and law at the Institute of Psychology at University of Kiel, Germany. His main research topics are: The development of deviant social behavior, aggression, violence and delinquency from early childhood to adulthood as well as evaluation research on programs on its prevention and intervention.

Frithjof Staude-Müller

Author photoFrithjof Staude-Müller is a researcher at the Institute of Psychology of the Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel. His research interests are media effects, deviant online behavior and parental mediation of children´s and adolescents´ media use. He is currently working on his PhD thesis on the effects of computer game violence on social information processing.
References

Angrilli, A., Cherubini, P., Pavese, A., & Manfredini, S. (1997). The influence of affective factors on time perception. Perception & Psychophysics, 59(6), 972-982.

APA (2007). Statement of the American Psychiatric Association on “Video Game Addiction” Retrieved March 3, 2009, from http://www.psych.org/...

Bindra, D., & Waksberg, H. (1956). Methods and terminology in studies of time estimation. Psychological Bulletin, 53(2), 155-159.

Block, R. A. (1990). Models of psychological time. In R. A. Block (Ed.), Cognitive models of psychological time (pp. 1–35). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Block, R. A. (1992). Prospective and retrospective duration judgment: The role of information processing and memory. In F. Macar, V. Pouthas & W. J. Friedman (Eds.), Time, Action and Cognition: Towards bridging the gap (pp. 141–152). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.

Block, R. A., & Zakay, D. (1996). Models of psychological time revisited. In H. Helfrich (Ed.), Time and Mind (pp. 171-195). Seattle: Hogrefe & Huber.

Block, R. A., & Zakay, D. (1997). Prospective and retrospective duration judgments: A meta-analytic review. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 4(2), 184-197.

Bobko, D. J., Bobko, P., & Davis, M. A. (1986). Effect of visual display scale on duration estimates. Human Factors, 28(2), 153-158.

Brown, S. W. (1997). Attentional resources in timing: Interference effects in concurrent temporal and nontemporal working memory tasks. Perception & Psychophysics, 59, 1118-1140.

Chou, T. J., & Ting, C. C. (2003). The role of flow experience in cyber-game addiction. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 6, 663-675.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: the Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper & Row.

Esser, H., & Witting, T. (1997). Transferprozesse beim Computerspiel. Was aus der Welt des Computerspiels übertragen wird [Transfer processes with computer games: What is transferred from the computer-game world]. In J. Fritz & W. Fehr (Eds.), Handbuch Medien: Computerspiele (pp. 247-261). Bonn: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung.

Fritz, J. (1997). Zwischen Transfer und Transformation. Überlegungen zu einem Wirkungsmodell der virtuellen Welt [Between transfer and transformation: Assumptions of an effect model of the virtual world]. In J. Fritz & W. Fehr (Eds.), Handbuch Medien: Computerspiele (pp. 229-246). Bonn: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung.

Griffiths, M. D. (2008). Videogame addiction: Fact or fiction? In W. Willoughby & E. Wood (Eds.), Children’s Learning in a Digital World (pp. 85–103). Maldan, Mass.: Blackwell.

Gruber, R. P., & Block, R. A. (2003). Effect of caffeine on prospective and retrospective duration judgements. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 18(5), 351-359.

Gruber, R. P., & Block, R. A. (2005). Effects of caffeine on prospective duration judgements of various intervals depend on task difficulty. Human Psychopharmacology, Clinical and Experimental, 20(4), 275-285.

Lapp, W. M., Collins, R. L., Zywiak, W. H., & Izzo, C. V. (1994). Psychopharmacological effects of alcohol on time perception: The extended balanced placebo design. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 55(1), 96-112.

Myers, D. (1992). Time, symbol transformation, and computer games. Play and Culture, 5, 441-457.

Rau, P. L. P., Peng, S. Y., & Yang, C. C. (2006). Time distortion for expert and novice online game players. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 9, 396-403.

Schneider, S. M., Prince-Paul, M., JoAllen, M., Silverman, P., & Talaba, D. (2004). Virtual reality as a distraction intervention for women receiving chemotherapy. Oncology Nursing Forum, 31(1), 81-88.

Tinklenberg, J. R., Roth, W. T., & Kopell, B. S. (1976). Marijuana and ethanol: Differential effects on time perception, heart rate, and subjective response. Psychopharmacology, 49, 275-279.

Totzke, I., Schoch, S., & Krüger, H. P. (2006). Fehleinschätzung von Zeit als Ursache für Ablenkungseffekte beim Fahren: Bedeutung von Menüstruktur und visuellen Anforderungen [Misjudgment of time as the cause of distraction effects whilst driving: The importance of task menu structure and visual demands]. MMI-Interaktiv, 11, 58-74.

Witting, T. (2007). Wie Computerspiele uns beeinflussen. Transferprozesse im Erleben der User [How computer games influence us: Transfer processes experienced by users]. München: kopaed.

Wood, R. T. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2007). Time loss whilst playing video games: Is there a relationship to addictive behaviours? International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 5(2), 141-149.

Wood, R. T. A., Griffiths, M. D., & Parke, A. (2007). Experiences of time loss among videogame players: An empirical study. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10, 38-44.

Zakay, D. (1990). The evasive art of subjective time measurement: Some methodological dilemmas. In R. A. Block (Ed.), Cognitive models of psychological time (pp. 59-84). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Zakay, D., & Block, R. A. (1996). The role of attention in time estimation processes. In M. A. Pastor & J. Artieda (Eds.), Time, internal clocks and movement (pp. 143–164). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.

Metrics

2074

Views

40784

HTML views