Adolescents who are nonusers of fashionable social networking platforms
Social media use is central to the organization of adolescent peer groups. Nonetheless, a small percentage of youth report that they do not have an active presence on any of the social networking platforms that are commonly accessed by their peers. The current study examines the academic and social functioning of this under investigated subgroup. We recruited 376 adolescents (M = 14.4 years of age; 209 girls) from an ethnically diverse urban high school. Participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing digital communication tendencies. A peer nomination inventory was used to index social reputations and reciprocated friendships. In addition, achievement data were obtained from school records. Forty-eight adolescents (12 girls) reported that they did not use any the social networking platforms that were in vogue with their peers (i.e., Snapchat, Instagram, and Twitter). Our findings presented a mixed picture regarding the adjustment of these youth. Compared to their classmates, nonusers of fashionable social networks were less popular and had fewer friends. On the other hand, nonusers were relatively high achieving and tended to establish a small number of friendships with academically high achieving peers.
Anderson, M., & Jiang, J. (2018, May 31). Teens, social media and technology. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2018/05/31/teens-social-media-technology-2018
Anderson, M., & Kumar, M. (2019). Digital divide persists even as lower-income Americans make gains in tech adoption. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/05/07/digital-divide-persists-even-as-lower-income-americans-make-gains-in-tech-adoption
Antheunis, M. L., Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2012). The quality of online, offline, and mixed-mode friendships among users of a social networking site. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 6(3) Article 6. https://doi.org/10.5817/CP2012-3-6
Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research. (2017, April 21). New survey: Snapchat and Instagram are most popular social media platforms among American teens: Black teens are the most active on social media and messaging apps. ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/04/170421113306.htm
Badaly, D., Schwartz, D., & Hopmeyer Gorman, A. (2012). Social status, perceived social reputations, and perceived dyadic relationships in early adolescence. Social Development, 21(3), 482–500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2011.00646.x
Baker, R. K., & White, K. M. (2011). In their own words: Why teenagers don’t use social networking sites. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(6), 395–398. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2010.0016
Brewer, S. L., Jr., Meckley-Brewer, H., & Stinson, P. M. (2017). Fearful and distracted in school: Predicting bullying among youths. Children & Schools, 39(4), 219–226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cs/cdx021
Cillessen, A. H. N., & Marks, P. E. L. (2011). Conceptualizing and measuring popularity. In A. H. N. Cillessen, D. Schwartz, & L. Mayeux (Eds.), Popularity in the peer system (pp. 25–56). The Guilford Press.
Cillessen, A. H. N., & Mayeux, L. (2004). From censure to reinforcement: Developmental changes in the association between aggression and social status. Child Development, 75(1), 147–163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00660.x
Cillessen, A. H. N., & Rose, A. J. (2005). Understanding popularity in the peer system. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14(2), 102–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0963-7214.2005.00343.x
Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Coppotelli, H. (1982). Dimensions and types of social status: A cross-age perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18(4), 557–570. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1622.214.171.1247
Cole, D. A., Martin, J. M., & Powers, B. (1997). A competency-based model of child depression: A longitudinal study of peer, parent, teacher, and self-evaluations. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38(5), 505–514. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1997.tb01537.x
Cox, D. D., & Snell, E. J. (1989). The analysis of binary data (2nd ed.). Chapman and Hall.
Dawes, M., & Xie, H. (2014). The role of popularity goal in early adolescents’ behaviors and popularity status. Developmental Psychology, 50(2), 489–497. https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0032999
Dijkstra, J. K., Cillessen, A. H. N., & Borch, C. (2013). Popularity and adolescent friendship networks: Selection and influence dynamics. Developmental Psychology, 49(7), 1242–1252. http://dx.doi.org /10.1037/a0030098
Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (1994). Socialization mediators of the relation between socioeconomic status and child conduct problems. Child Development, 65(2), 649–665. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131407
Duong, M. T., Schwartz, D., & McCarty, C. A. (2014). Do peers contribute to the achievement gap between Vietnamese‐American and Mexican‐American adolescents? Social Development, 23(1), 196–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sode.12033
Flannery, K. M., & Smith, R. L. (2017). Are peer status, friendship quality, and friendship stability equivalent markers of social competence? Adolescent Research Review, 2(4), 331–340. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40894-016-0042-z
Garandeau, C. F., & Lansu, T. A. M. (2019). Why does decreased likeability not deter adolescent bullying perpetrators? Aggressive Behavior, 45(3), 348–359. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.21824
Granic, I., Lobel, A., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2014). The benefits of playing video games. American Psychologist, 69(1), 66–78. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034857
Hamm, J. V. (2000). Do birds of a feather flock together? The variable bases for African American, Asian American, and European American adolescents' selection of similar friends. Developmental Psychology, 36(2), 209–219. https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-16126.96.36.199
Hamm, M. P., Newton, A. S., Chisholm, A., Shulhan, J., Milne, A., Sundar, P., Ennis, H., Scott, S. D., & Hartling, L. (2015). Prevalence and effect of cyberbullying on children and young people: A scoping review of social media studies. JAMA Pediatrics, 169(8), 770–777. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.0944
Hanish, L. D., Martin, C. L., Fabes, R. A., Leonard, S., & Herzog, M. (2005). Exposure to externalizing peers in early childhood: Homophily and peer contagion processes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(3), 267–281. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-005-3564-6
Hartup, W. W. (1996). The company they keep: Friendships and their developmental significance. Child Development, 67(1), 1–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131681
Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four factor index of social status [Unpublished Working Paper]. Yale University.
Jose, P. E., Kljakovic, M., Scheib, E., & Notter, O. (2012). The joint development of traditional bullying and victimization. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22(2), 301–309. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2011.00764.x
Kenny, D. A., Kashy, D. A., & Cook, W. L. (2006). Dyadic data analysis. The Guilford Press.
Kuncel, N. R., Credé, M., & Thomas, L. L. (2005). The validity of self-reported grade point averages, class ranks, and test scores: A meta-analysis and review of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 75(1), 63–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543075001063
Laursen, B., Bukowski, W. M., Aunola, K., & Nurmi, J.-E. (2007). Friendship moderates prospective associations between social isolation and adjustment problems in young children. Child Development, 78(4), 1395–1404. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01072.x
Lenhart, A. (2015, April 9). Teens, social media, and technology overview 2015. Pew Research Center. http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/04/09/teens-social-media-technology-2015/
Malamut, S. T., Luo, T., & Schwartz, D. (2020). Prospective associations between popularity, victimization, and aggression in early adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 49(11), 2347–2357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-020-01248-4
Marino, C., Gini, G., Angelini, F., Vieno, A., & Spada, M. M. (2020). Social norms and emotions in problematic social media use among adolescents. Addictive Behaviors Reports, 11, Article 100250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abrep.2020.100250
Marks, P. E. L., Cillessen, A. H. N., & Crick, N. R. (2012). Popularity contagion among adolescents. Social Development, 21(3), 501–521. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2011.00647.x
McNelles, L. R., & Connolly, J. A. (1999). Intimacy between adolescent friends: Age and gender differences in intimate affect and intimate behaviors. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 9(2), 143–159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327795jra0902_2
Mikami, A. Y., Szwedo, D. E., Allen, J. P., Evans, M. A., & Hare, A. L. (2010). Adolescent peer relationships and behavior problems predict young adults’ communication on social networking websites. Developmental Psychology, 46(1), 46–56. https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0017420
Nesi, J., Choukas-Bradley, S., & Prinstein, M. J. (2018a). Transformation of adolescent peer relations in the social media context: Part 1—A theoretical framework and application to dyadic peer relationships. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 21(3), 267–294. http://dx.doi. org/10.1007/s10567-018-0261-x
Nesi, J., Choukas-Bradley, S., & Prinstein, M. J. (2018b). Transformation of adolescent peer relations in the social media context: Part 2—Application to peer group processes and future directions for research. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 21(3), 295–319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10567-018-0262-9
Nesi, J., & Prinstein, M. J. (2015). Using social media for social comparison and feedback-seeking: Gender and popularity moderate associations with depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(8), 1427–1438. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-015-0020-0
Newcomb, A. F., Bukowski, W. M., & Pattee, L. (1993). Children's peer relations: A meta-analytic review of popular, rejected, neglected, controversial, and average sociometric status. Psychological Bulletin, 113(1), 99–128. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.113.1.99
Parkhurst, J. T., & Hopmeyer, A. (1998). Sociometric popularity and peer-perceived popularity: Two distinct dimensions of peer status. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 18(2), 125–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272431698018002001
Prinstein, M. J., & Cillessen, A. H. N. (2003). Forms and functions of adolescent peer aggression associated with high levels of peer status. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 49(3), 310–342. http://dx.doi. org/10.1353/mpq.2003.0015
Przybylski, A. K., & Weinstein, N. (2017). A large-scale test of the goldilocks hypothesis: Quantifying the relations between digital-screen use and the mental well-being of adolescents. Psychological Science, 28(2), 204–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797616678438
Rambaran, J. A., Hopmeyer, A., Schwartz, D., Steglich, C., Badaly, D., & Veenstra, R. (2017). Academic functioning and peer influences: A short‐term longitudinal study of network–behavior dynamics in middle adolescence. Child Development, 88(2), 523–543. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12611
Rideout, V. J. (2012). Social media, social life: How teens view their digital lives. Common Sense Media.
Rideout, V. J., & Robb, M. B. (2018). Social media, social life: Teens reveal their experiences. Common Sense Media.
Rose, A. J., & Rudolph, K. D. (2006). A review of sex differences in peer relationship processes: Potential trade-offs for the emotional and behavioral development of girls and boys. Psychological Bulletin, 132(1), 98–131. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.132.1.98
Ruggiero, T. E. (2000). Uses and gratifications theory in the 21st century. Mass Communication & Society, 3(1), 3–37.
Ryan, A. M. (2000). Peer groups as a context for the socialization of adolescents' motivation, engagement, and achievement in school. Educational Psychologist, 35(2), 101–111. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326985EP3502_4
Santor, D. A., Messervey, D. & Kusumakar, V. (2000). Measuring peer pressure, popularity, and conformity in adolescent boys and girls: Predicting school performance, sexual attitudes, and substance abuse. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29(2), 163–182. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005152515264
Scheiber, C., Reynolds, M. R., Hajovsky, D. B., & Kaufman, A. S. (2015). Gender differences in achievement in a large, nationally representative sample of children and adolescents. Psychology in the Schools, 52(4), 335–348. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.21827
Schwartz, D., & Gorman, A. H. (2011). The high price of high status: Popularity as a mechanism of risk. In A. H. N. Cillessen, D. Schwartz & L. Mayeux (Eds.), Popularity in the peer system (pp. 245–270). The Guilford Press.
Schwartz, D., Gorman, A. H., Duong, M. T., & Nakamoto, J. (2008). Peer relationships and academic achievement as interacting predictors of depressive symptoms during middle childhood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117(2), 289–299. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.117.2.289
Schwartz, D., Gorman, A. H., Nakamoto, J., & McKay, T. (2006). Popularity, social acceptance, and aggression in adolescent peer groups: Links with academic performance and school attendance. Developmental Psychology, 42(6), 1116–1127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.526
Schwartz, D., Kelleghan, A., Malamut, S., Mali, L., Ryjova, Y., Hopmeyer, A., & Luo, T. (2019). Distinct modalities of electronic communication and school adjustment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 48(8), 1452–1468. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-019-01061-8
Schwartz, D., Kelly, B. M., & Duong, M. T. (2013). Do academically-engaged adolescents experience social sanctions from the peer group? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(9), 1319–1330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-012-9882-4
Schwartz, D., Kelly, B. M., Mali, L. V., & Duong, M. T. (2016). Exposure to violence in the community predicts friendships with academically disengaged peers during middle adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45(9), 1786–1799. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0485-3
Shapiro, L. A. S., & Margolin, G. (2014). Growing up wired: Social networking sites and adolescent psychosocial development. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 17(1), 1–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10567-013-0135-1
Sheppard, C. S., Giletta, M., & Prinstein, M. J. (2019). Peer victimization trajectories at the adolescent transition: Associations among chronic victimization, peer-reported status, and adjustment. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 48(2), 218–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2016.1261713
Sundar, S. S., & Limperos, A. M. (2013). Uses and grats 2.0: New gratifications for new media. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 57(4), 504–525. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08838151.2013.845827
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Allyn & Bacon/Pearson Education.
Troop-Gordon, W., Visconti, K. J., & Kuntz, K. J. (2011). Perceived popularity during early adolescence: Links to declining school adjustment among aggressive youth. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 31(1), 125–151. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431610384488
Underwood, M. K., Brown, B. B., & Ehrenreich, S. E. (2018). Social media and peer relations. In W. M. Bukowski, B. Laursen, & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 533–551). The Guilford Press.
Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2009a). Social consequences of the Internet for adolescents: A decade of research. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18(1), 1–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01595.x
Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2009b). The effects of instant messaging on the quality of adolescents’ existing friendships: A longitudinal study. Journal of Communication, 59(1), 79–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.01405.x
Van Zalk, M. H. W., Kerr, M., Branje, S. J. T., Stattin, H., & Meeus, W. H. J. (2010). It takes three: Selection, influence, and de-selection processes of depression in adolescent friendship networks. Developmental Psychology, 46(4), 927–938. http://dx.doi. org/10.1037/a0019661
Vannucci, A., & McCauley Ohannessian, C. (2019). Social media use subgroups differentially predict psychosocial well-being during early adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 48(8), 1469–1493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-019-01060-9
Vidal, C., Lhaksampa, T., Miller, L., & Platt, R. (2020). Social media use and depression in adolescents: A scoping review. International Review of Psychiatry, 32(3), 235–253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540261.2020.1720623
Yau, J. C., & Reich, S. M. (2018). Are the qualities of adolescents’ offline friendships present in digital interactions? Adolescent Research Review, 3(3), 339–355. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40894-017-0059-y
Yau, J. C., & Reich, S. M. (2019). “It's just a lot of work”: Adolescents’ self‐presentation norms and practices on Facebook and Instagram. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 29(1), 196–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jora.12376
Youyou, W., Stillwell, D., Schwartz, H. A., & Kosinski, M. (2017). Birds of a feather do flock together: Behavior-based personality-assessment method reveals personality similarity among couples and friends. Psychological Science, 28(3), 276–284. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797616678187
Copyright (c) 2021 Schwartz, Fritz, Kelleghan, Ryjova, Omary, Taylor, Luo
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.