Assessment of virtual reality as an anxiety and disgust provoking tool: The use of VR exposure in individuals with high contamination fear


Preliminary studies have provided promising results on the feasibility of virtual reality (VR) interventions for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. The present study investigated whether VR scenarios that were developed for contamination concerns evoke anxiety, disgust, and the urge to wash in individuals with high (n = 33) and low (n = 33) contamination fear. In addition, the feasibility of VR exposure in inducing disgust was examined through testing the mediator role of disgust in the relationship between contamination anxiety and the urge to wash. Participants were immersed in virtual scenarios with varying degrees of dirtiness and rated their level of anxiety, disgust, and the urge to wash after performing the virtual tasks. Data were collected between September and December 2019. The participants with high contamination fear reported higher contamination-related ratings than those with low contamination fear. The significant main effect of dirtiness indicated that anxiety and disgust levels increased with increasing overall dirtiness of the virtual scenarios in both high and low contamination fear groups. Moreover, disgust elicited by VR mediated the relationship between contamination fear and the urge to wash. The findings demonstrated the feasibility of VR in eliciting emotional responses that are necessary for conducting exposure in individuals with high contamination fear. In conclusion, VR can be used as an alternative exposure tool in the treatment of contamination-based OCD.

Bibliographic citation

Inozu, M., Çelikcan, U., Trak, E., Üzümcü, E., & Nergiz, H. (2021). Assessment of virtual reality as an anxiety and disgust provoking tool: The use of VR exposure in individuals with high contamination fear. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 15(1), Article 7. doi:


Obsessive-compulsive disorder; virtual reality; contamination fear; disgust

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