Demystifying sexting: Adolescent sexting and its associations with parenting styles and sense of parental social control in Israel

Abstract

The present study examined sexting habits (sending text messages, as well as nude or semi-nude photos, and/or requesting the same from others) among adolescents, as reported by 458 students (101 boys, 357 girls), with the aim of investigating whether and how sexting correlates with parenting styles and manifestations of parental social control. An online link was published on social media, asking participants who meet the research criteria to complete several questionnaires. About 30% of the participants reported sending sexual messages, and almost 32% reported that others, mainly strangers, asked them to send nude or semi-nude photos. Furthermore, sexting was more common among high-school students than among middle-school students, and asking another person to send nude or semi-nude photos was more common among boys than among girls. Lower parental social control was related to increased likelihood of sexting, and higher perception of permissive parenting style was associated with asking someone else to send nude or semi-nude photos. These findings shed light on sexting among adolescents in Israel. Moreover, the findings show that adolescents do not report sexting either to parents or to other significant adults in their lives, such as teachers or other educational staff at school. The article concludes with implications for educators and educational counselors in view of these findings.

Bibliographic citation

Dolev-Cohen, M., & Ricon, T. (2020). Demystifying sexting: Adolescent sexting and its associations with parenting styles and sense of parental social control in Israel. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 14(1), Article 6. doi:https://doi.org/10.5817/CP2020-1-6

Keywords

Sexting; adolescence; Internet; parenting style; social control

Full Text:

HTML

References

Show references Hide references

Agustina, J. R. (2015). Understanding cyber victimization: Digital architectures and the disinhibition effect. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 9(1), 35–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.22239

Anderson, M. (2015). Technology device ownership: 2015. Pew Research Center: Internet & Technology. http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/10/29/technology-device-ownership-2015

Arcabascio, C. (2010). Sexting and teenagers: Omg ru going 2 jail??? Richmond Journal of Law & Technology, 16(3), Article 4. https://scholarship.richmond.edu/jolt/vol16/iss3/4

Baumgartner, S. E., Sumter, S. R., Peter, J., Valkenburg, P. M., & Livingstone, S. (2014). Does country context matter? Investigating the predictors of teen sexting across Europe. Computers in Human Behavior, 34, 157–164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.01.041

Baumgartner, S. E., Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2010). Unwanted online sexual solicitation and risky sexual online behavior across the lifespan. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31(6), 439–447. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2010.07.005

Baumrind, D. (1977). What research is teaching us about the differences between authoritative and authoritarian child-rearing styles. In D. E. Hamachek (Ed.), Human dynamics in psychology and education: Selected readings (3rd ed., pp. 213-220). Allyn & Bacon.

Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 11(1), 56–95. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431691111004

Boehnke, M. (2011). Gender role attitudes around the globe: Egalitarian vs. traditional views. Asian Journal of Social Science, 39(1), 57-74.‏ https://www.jstor.org/stable/43500538

Boniel-Nissim, M., Efrati, Y., & Dolev-Cohen, M. (2020). Parental mediation regarding children’s pornography exposure: The role of parenting style, protection motivation and gender. The Journal of Sex Research, 57(1), 42–51.‏ http://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2019.1590795

Boniel-Nissim, M., Lenzi, M., Zsizos, E., Gaspar de Matos, M., Gommans, R., Harel-Fisch, Y., Djalovski, A., & van der Sluijs, W. (2015). International trends in electronic media communication (EMC) among 11- to 15-year-olds in 30 countries from 2002 to 2010: Association with ease of communication with friends of the opposite sex. European Journal on Public Health, 25(Suppl. 2), 41–45. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckv025

Boniel-Nissim, M., Tabak, I., Mazur, J., Borraccino, A., Brooks, F., Gommans, R., van der Sluijs, W., Zsiros, E., Craig, W., Harel-Fisch, Y., & Finne, E. (2015). Supportive communication with parents moderates the negative effects of electronic media use on life satisfaction during adolescence. International Journal of Public Health, 60(2), 189–198. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-014-0636-9

Buri, J. R. (1991). Parental Authority Questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57(1), 110–119. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa5701_13

Casas, J. A., Ojeda, M., Elipe, P., & Del Rey, R. (2019). Exploring which factors contribute to teens' participation in sexting. Computers in Human Behavior, 100, 60–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.06.010

Cooper, K., Quayle, E., Jonsson, L., & Svedin, C. G. (2016). Adolescents and self-taken sexual images: A review of the literature. Computers in Human Behavior, 55(Part B), 706–716. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.10.003

Cox Communications (2009). Teen Online & Wireless Safety Survey: Cyberbullying, sexting, and parental controls. http://www.scribd.com/doc/20023365/2009-Cox-Teen-Online-Wireless-Safety-Survey-Cyberbullying-Sexting-and-Parental-Controls

Dake, J. A., Price, J. H., Maziarz, L., & Ward, B. (2012). Prevalence and correlates of sexting behavior in adolescents. American Journal of Sexuality Education, 7(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/15546128.2012.650959

Daneback, K., Træen, B., & Månsson, S.-A. (2009). Use of pornography in a random sample of Norwegian heterosexual couples. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38(5), 746–753. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-008-9314-4

D'Antona, R., Kevorkian, M., & Russom, A. (2010). Sexting, texting, cyberbullying and keeping youth safe online. Journal of Social Sciences,6(4), 523–528. https://doi.org/10.3844/jssp.2010.523.528

Darling, N., & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as context: An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin, 1113(3), 487-496. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.113.3.487

Davidson, J. (2015). Sexting: Gender and teens. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6209-851-0

De Gaston, J. F., Weed, S., & Jensen, L. (1996). Understanding gender differences in adolescent sexuality. Adolescence, 31(121), 217–231.

de Graaf, H., Vanwesenbeeck, I., Woertman, L., & Meeus, W. (2011). Parenting and adolescents’ sexual development in western societies. European Psychologist, 16(1), 21–31. https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040/a000031

Delevi, R., & Weisskirch, R. S. (2013). Personality factors as predictors of sexting. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(6), 2589–2594. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.06.003

Dir, A. L., Coskunpinar, A., Steiner, J. L., & Cyders, M. A. (2013). Understanding differences in sexting behaviors across gender, relationship status, and sexual identity, and the role of expectancies in sexting. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16(8), 568–574. http://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2012.0545

Döring, N. (2014). Consensual sexting among adolescents: Risk prevention through abstinence education or safer sexting? Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 8(1), Article 9. http://dx.doi.org/10.5817/CP2014-1-9

Drouin, M., Ross, J., & Tobin, E. (2015). Sexting: A new, digital vehicle for intimate partner aggression? Computers in Human Behavior, 50, 197–204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.04.001

Drouin, M., Vogel, K. N., Surbey, A., & Stills, J. R. (2013). Let's talk about sexting, baby: Computer-mediated sexual behaviors among young adults. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(5), A25–A30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.12.030

Duggan, M., Ellison, N. B., Lampe, C., Lenhart, A., & Madden, M. (2015). Social Media Update 2014. Pew Research Center. http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/01/09/social-media-update-2014/

Englander, E. (2012). Low risk associated with most teenage sexting: A study of 617 18-year-olds. MARC Research Reports. https://vc.bridgew.edu/marc_reports/6

Fagan, J., & Pabon, E. (1990). Contributions of delinquency and substance use to school dropout among inner-city youths. Youth & Society, 21(3), 306–354. https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X90021003003

Garcia, J. R., Gesselman, A. N., Siliman, S. A., Perry, B. L., Coe, K., & Fisher, H. E. (2016). Sexting among singles in the USA: Prevalence of sending, receiving, and sharing sexual messages and images. Sexual Health, 13(5), 428–435. https://doi.org/10.1071/SH15240

Gordon-Messer, D., Bauermeister, J. A., Grodzinski, A., & Zimmerman, M. (2013). Sexting among young adults. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52(3), 301–306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.05.013

Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford University Press.

Hasinoff, A. A., & Shepherd, T. (2014). Sexting in context: Privacy norms and expectations. International Journal of Communication, 8, 2932–2955. https://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/2264

Heirman, W., & Walrave, M. (2008). Assessing concerns and issues about the mediation of technology in cyberbullying. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 2(2), Article 1. https://cyberpsychology.eu/article/view/4214/3256

Henderson, L., & Morgan, E. (2011). Sexting and sexual relationships among teens and young adults. McNair Scholars Research Journal, 7(1), Article 9. https://scholarworks.boisestate.edu/mcnair_journal/vol7/iss1/9

Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. University of California Press.

Houck, C. D., Barker, D., Rizzo, C., Hancock, E., Norton, A., & Brown, L. K. (2014). Sexting and sexual behavior in at-risk adolescents. Pediatrics, 133(2), e276–e282. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-1157

Hudson, H. K., & Fetro, J. V. (2015). Sextual activity: Predictors of sexting behaviors and intentions to sext among selected undergraduate students. Computers in Human Behavior, 49, 615–622. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.03.048

Jacobson, K. C., & Crockett, L. J. (2000). Parental monitoring and adolescent adjustment: An ecological perspective. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 10(1), 65–97. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2000-13351-004

Jonsson, L. S., Priebe, G., Bladh, M., & Svedin, C. G. (2014). Voluntary sexual exposure online among Swedish youth – social background, Internet behavior and psychosocial health. Computers in Human Behavior, 30, 181–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.08.005

Kerstens, J., & Stol, W. (2014). Receiving online sexual requests and producing online sexual images: The multifaceted and dialogic nature of adolescents’ online sexual interactions. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 8(1), Article 8. https://doi.org/10.5817/CP2014-1-8

Kiefer, A. K., & Sanchez, D. T. (2007). Scripting sexual passivity: A gender role perspective. Personal Relationships, 14(2), 269–290. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6811.2007.00154.x

Klettke, B., Hallford, D. J., & Mellor, D. J. (2014). Sexting prevalence and correlates: A systematic literature review. Clinical psychology review, 34(1), 44-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2013.10.007

Klettke, B., Hallford, D. J., Clancy, E., Mellor, D. J., & Toumbourou, J. W. (2019). Sexting and psychological distress: The role of unwanted and coerced sexts. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 22(4), 237–242. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2018.0291

Klettke, B., Mellor, D., Silva-Myles, L., Clancy, E., & Sharma, M. (2018). Sexting and mental health: A study of Indian and Australian young adults. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 12(2), Article 2. https://doi.org/10.5817/CP2018-2-2

Kopecký, K. (2012). Sexting among Czech preadolescents and adolescents. The New Educational Review, 28(2), 39–48.

Kosenko, K., Luurs, G., & Binder, A. R. (2017). Sexting and sexual behavior, 2011–2015: A critical review and meta-analysis of a growing literature. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 22(3), 141-160. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcc4.12187

Lapidot-Lefler, N., & Barak, A. (2012). Effects of anonymity, invisibility, and lack of eye-contact on toxic online disinhibition. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(2), 434–443. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2011.10.014

Lavee, Y., & Katz, R. (2003). The family in Israel: Between tradition and modernity. Marriage & Family Review, 35(1–2), 193–217. https://doi.org/10.1300/J002v35n01_11

Lenhart, A. (2009). Teens and sexting: How and why minor teens are sending sexually suggestive nude or nearly nude images via text messaging. Pew Research Center: Internet & Technology. https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2009/12/15/teens-and-sexting/

Lenhart, A., Ling, R., Campbell, S., & Purcell, K. (2010). Teens and mobile phones: Text messaging explodes as teens embrace it as the centerpiece of their communication strategies with friends. Pew Research Center: Internet & Technology. https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2010/04/20/teens-and-mobile-phones/

Lewis, M. A., & Butterfield, R. M. (2005). Antecedents and reactions to health-related social control. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(3), 416–427.‏ https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167204271600

Lewis, M. A., Butterfield, R. M., Darbes, L. A., & Johnston‐Brooks, C. (2004). The conceptualization and assessment of health‐related social control. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 21(5), 669–687. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407504045893

Liska, A. E., & Reed, M. D. (1985). Ties to conventional institutions and delinquency: Estimating reciprocal effects. American Sociological Review, 50(4), 547–560. https://doi.org/10.2307/2095438

Livingstone, S. M., Haddon, L., & Görzig, A. (2012). Children, risk and safety on the Internet: Research and policy challenges in comparative perspective. Policy Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt9qgt5z

Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent-child interaction. In P. H. Mussen & E. M. Hetherington (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Socialization, personality, and social development (Vol. 4, pp. 1–101). Wiley.

Macmull, M. S., & Ashkenazi, S. (2019). Math anxiety: The relationship between parenting style and math self-efficacy. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, Article 1721.‏ https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01721

Madigan, S., Ly, A., Rash, C. L., Van Ouytsel, J., & Temple, J. R. (2018). Prevalence of multiple forms of sexting behavior among youth: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatrics, 172(4), 327–335. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.5314

Matsueda, R. L. (1982). Testing control theory and differential association: A causal modeling approach. American Sociological Review, 47(4), 489–504. https://doi.org/10.2307/2095194

McKinney, C., Donnelly, R., & Renk, K. (2008). Perceived parenting, positive and negative perceptions of parents, and late adolescent emotional adjustment. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 13(2), 66-73. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-3588.2007.00452.x

Mitchell, K. J., Finkelhor, D., Jones, L. M., & Wolak, J. (2012). Prevalence and characteristics of youth sexting: A national study. Pediatrics, 129(1), 13–20. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-1730

National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. (2008). The national campaign to prevent teen and unplanned pregnancy and cosmogirl.com reveal results of sex & tech survey: Large percentage of teens posting/sending nude/semi nude images. https://powertodecide.org/what-we-do/information/resource-library/sex-and-tech-results-survey-teens-and-young-adults

Norman, J. M. (2017). Implications of parenting behaviour and adolescent attachment for understanding adolescent sexting [Doctoral dissertation, University of Windsor]. Electronic Theses and Dissertations. https://scholar.uwindsor.ca/etd/7285

Ogletree, S. M., Fancher, J., & Gill, S. (2014). Gender and texting: Masculinity, femininity, and gender role ideology. Computers in Human Behavior, 37, 49–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.04.021

Omer, H. (1999). Parental presence: Reclaiming a leadership role in bringing up our children. Zeig Tucker & Theisen Publishers.

Patchin, J. W., & Hinduja, S. (2020). Sextortion among adolescents: Results from a national survey of U.S. youth. Sexual Abuse, 32(1), 30–54. https://doi.org/10.1177/1079063218800469

Pugliese, J. A., & Okun, M. A. (2014). Social control and strenuous exercise among late adolescent college students: Parents versus peers as influence agents. Journal of Adolescence, 37(5), 543–554. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.04.008

Querido, J. G., Warner, T. D., & Eyberg, S. M. (2002). Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 31(2), 272–277. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3102_12

Rea, J. G., & Rossman, B. B. R. (2005). Children exposed to interparental violence: Does parenting contribute to functioning over time? Journal of Emotional Abuse, 5(1), 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1300/J135v05n01_01

Reitman, D., Rhode, P. C., Hupp, S. D. A., & Altobello, C. (2002). Development and validation of the Parental Authority Questionnaire – Revised. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 24(2), 119–127. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015344909518

Reyns, B. W., Henson, B., & Fisher, B. S. (2014). Digital deviance: Low self-control and opportunity as explanations of sexting among college students. Sociological Spectrum, 34(3), 273–292. https://doi.org/10.1080/02732173.2014.895642

Rice, E., Gibbs, J., Winetrobe, H., Rhoades, H., Plant, A., Montoya, J., & Kordic, T. (2014). Sexting and sexual behavior among middle school students. Pediatrics, 134(1), e21–e28. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-2991

Rice, E., Rhoades, H., Winetrobe, H., Sanchez, M., Montoya, J., Plant, A., & Kordic, T. (2012). Sexually explicit cell phone messaging associated with sexual risk among adolescents. Pediatrics, 130(4), 667–673. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-0021

Ringrose, J., Harvey, L., Gill, R., & Livingstone, S. (2013). Teen girls, sexual double standards and ‘sexting’: Gendered value in digital image exchange. Feminist Theory, 14(3), 305–323. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464700113499853

Robinson, C. C., Mandleco, B., Frost Olsen, S., & Hart, C. H. (1995). Authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting practices: Development of a new measure. Psychological Reports, 77(3), 819–830. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1995.77.3.819

Rossman, B. B. R., & Rea, J. G. (2005). The relation of parenting styles and inconsistencies to adaptive functioning for children in conflictual and violent families. Journal of Family Violence, 20(5), 261–277. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-005-6603-8

Scott-Little, M. C., & Holloway, S. D. (1994). Caregivers' attributions about children's misbehavior in child-care centers. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15(2), 241–253. https://doi.org/10.1016/0193-3973(94)90015-9

Solberg, S. (2007). Psychology of the child and the adolescent: An introduction to developmental psychology. Sifrei Hemed.

Spencer, J., Olson, J., Schrager, S., Tanaka, D., & Belzer, M. (2015). 40. Sexting and adolescents: A descriptive study of sexting and youth in an urban population. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56(2, Suppl. 1), S22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.10.044

Steinberg, L. (2008). Adolescence. McGraw-Hill.

Strassberg, D. S., Cann, D., & Velarde, V. (2017). Sexting by high school students. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46(6), 1667–1672. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-016-0926-9

Suler, J. (2004). The online disinhibition effect. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7(3), 321–326. https://doi.org/10.1089/1094931041291295

Symons, K., Ponnet, K., Walrave, M., & Heirman, W. (2018). Sexting scripts in adolescent relationships: Is sexting becoming the norm? New Media & Society, 20(10), 3836–3857. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444818761869

Temple, J. R., Donna Le, V., van den Berg, P., Ling, Y., Paul, J. A., & Temple, B. W. (2014). Brief report: Teen sexting and psychosocial health. Journal of Adolescence, 37(1), 33–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.10.008

Unnever, J. D., Cullen, F. T., & Pratt, T. C. (2003). Parental management, ADHD, and delinquent involvement: Reassessing Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory. Justice Quarterly, 20(3), 471–500. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418820300095591

Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2009). Social consequences of the Internet for adolescents: A decade of research. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18(1), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01595.x

Van Ouytsel, J., Torres, E., Jeong Choi, H., Ponnet, K., Walrave, M., & Temple, J. R. (2017). The associations between substance use, sexual behaviors, bullying, deviant behaviors, health, and cyber dating abuse perpetration. The Journal of School Nursing, 33(2), 116–122. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059840516683229

Van Ouytsel, J., Van Gool, E., Walrave, M., Ponnet, K., & Peeters, E. (2017). Sexting: Adolescents’ perceptions of the applications used for, motives for, and consequences of sexting. Journal of Youth Studies, 20(4), 446–470.‏ http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-8203349

Van Ouytsel, J., Walrave, M., Lu, Y., Temple, J. R., & Ponnet, K. (2018). The Associations between substance use, sexual behavior, deviant behaviors and adolescents’ engagement in sexting: Does relationship context matter? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(11), 2353–2370. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-018-0903-9

Vanwesenbeeck, I., Ponnet, K., Walrave, M., & Van Ouytsel, J. (2018). Parents’ role in adolescents’ sexting behaviour. In M. Walrave, J. Van Ouytsel, K. Ponnet, & J. Temple (Eds.), Sexting (pp. 63–80). Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71882-8_5

Walker, K., & Sleath, E. (2017). A systematic review of the current knowledge regarding revenge pornography and non-consensual sharing of sexually explicit media. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 36, 9–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.010

West, J. H., Lister, C. E., Hall, P. C., Crookston, B. T., Snow, P. R., Zvietcovich, M. E., & West, R. P. (2014). Sexting among Peruvian adolescents. BMC Public Health, 14(1), Article 811. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-811

Wilchek-Aviad, Y. (2005). Model for predicting learning perseverance among boarding school students in Israel. International Journal on Disability and Human Development, 4(2), 121–130. https://doi.org/10.1515/IJDHD.2005.4.2.121

Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., Walsh, W., & Treitman, L. (2018). Sextortion of minors: Characteristics and dynamics. Journal of Adolescent Health, 62(1), 72–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.08.014

Yaffe, Y. (2018). Convergent validity and reliability of the Hebrew version of the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) in Hebrew-speaking Israeli-Arab families. Interpersona: An International Journal on Personal Relationships, 12(2), 133–144. https://doi.org/10.5964/ijpr.v12i2.303

https://doi.org/10.5817/CP2020-1-6