Consensual sexting among adolescents: Risk prevention through abstinence education or safer sexting?


Sexting – that is, the private exchange of self-produced sexual images via cell phone or the internet – has been widely discussed in public and academic discourses as a new high-risk behavior among youths (especially girls) that should be prevented through better education about the various and severe risks it poses. This paper summarizes existing data on sexting prevalence (17 studies), which reveal that sexting is much more common among adults than among youths, with increasing prevalence among adolescents as they grow older. The paper then looks at the current state of sexting research by reviewing all 50 sexting papers in the PsycINFO and PubMed databases published between 2009 and 2013 regarding their coverage of the risks and/or opportunities associated with sexting. Most of the papers (79%) address adolescent sexting as risky behavior and link it to sexual objectification and violence, to risky sexual behavior, and to negative consequences like bullying by peers and criminal prosecution under child pornography laws. In opposition to this deviance discourse, a normalcy discourse is appearing in the literature that interprets sexting as normal intimate communication within romantic and sexual relationships, both among adults and adolescents who are exploring and growing into adult relationships. Next, the paper analyzes the sexting risk prevention messages of 10 online educational campaigns. Such campaigns typically rely on scare scenarios, emphasize the risk of bullying and criminal prosecution, engage in female victim blaming, and recommend complete abstinence from sexting. The paper closes by questioning the abstinence approach in sexting education, and makes suggestions on how to move towards an evidence-based approach to sexting risk prevention that acknowledges both adolescents' vulnerability and sexual agency.

Bibliographic citation

Döring, N. (2014). Consensual sexting among adolescents: Risk prevention through abstinence education or safer sexting?. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 8(1), Article 9. doi:


sexting; sexually explicit user generated content; cell phone; gender; bullying; media education

Full Text:



Show references Hide references

Agomuoh, F. (2012). Amanda Todd suicide doesn't end cyber torment for ridiculed teen. International Business Times, October 15, 2012. Retrieved from:

Agustina, J. R. , & Gómez-Durán, E. L. (2012). Sexting: Research criteria of a globalized social phenomenon. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 1325-1328.

Ahern, N., & Mechling, B. (2013). Sexting: Serious problems for youth. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 51(7), 22-30.

Albury, K., & Crawford, K. (2012). Sexting, consent and young people's ethics: Beyond Megan's Story. Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, 26, 463-473.

Albury, K., Crawford, K., Byron,P., & Mathews, B. (2013). Young People and Sexting in Australia. Ethics, Representation, and the Law. University of New South Wales, Australia. Retrieved from:

Angelides, S. (2013). Technology, hormones, and stupidity: The affective politics of teenage sexting. Sexualities, 16, 665-689.

APA [American Psychological Association] (2007). Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Washington, DC: APA. . Retrieved from:

Attwood, F. (2007). Sluts and riot grrrls: Female identity and sexual agency. Journal of Gender Studies, 16, 233-247.

Bauermeister, J. A. (2013). "Significant and non-significant associations between technology use and sexual risk: A need for more empirical attention": The author replies. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53, 148-149.

Bauermeister, J. A., Yeagley, E. M., Meanley, S., & Pingel, E. S. (2013). Sexting among young men who have sex with men: Results from a national survey. Journal of Adolescent Health.

Benotsch, E. G., Martin, A. M., Snipes, D. J., & Bull, S. S. (2013a). Sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in young adults. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52, 307-313.

Benotsch, E. G., Martin, A. M., Snipes, D. J., & Bull, S. S. (2013b). Significant and non-significant associations between technology use and sexual risk: A need for more empirical attention. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53, 147-148.

Calvert, C. (2009). Sex, cell phones, privacy, and the first amendment: When children become child pornographers and the lolita effect undermines the law. CommLaw Conspectus: Journal of Communications Law and Policy, 18, 1-66.

Celizic, M. (2009). Her teen committed suicide over ‘sexting’. Cynthia Logan’s daughter was taunted about photo she sent to boyfriend. MSNBC Today, 6 March 2009. Retrieved from:

Chalfen, R. (2009). 'It's only a picture': Sexting, 'smutty' snapshots and felony charges. Visual Studies, 24, 258-268.

Chalfen, R. (2010). Commentary: Sexting as adolescent social communication. Journal of Children and Media, 4, 350-354.

Comartin, E., Kernsmith, R., & Kernsmith, P. (2013). "Sexting" and sex offender registration: Do age, gender, and sexual orientation matter? Deviant Behavior, 34, 38-52.

Cox Communications (2009). Teen Online & Wireless Safety Survey. Cyberbullying, Sexting, and Parental Controls. Retrieved from:

Crofts, T., & Lee, M. (2013). 'Sexting', children and child pornography. The Sydney Law Review, 35, 85-106.

Curnutt, H. (2012). Flashing your phone: Sexting and the remediation of teen sexuality. Communication Quarterly, 60, 353-369.

Dake, J., Price, J., Maziarz, L., & Ward, B. (2012). Prevalence and correlates of sexting behavior in adolescents. American Journal of Sexuality Education, 7, 1-15.

Day, T. (2010). The new digital dating behavior—sexting: Teens’ explicit love letters: Criminal justice or civil liability. Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal, 33, 69-96.

Delevi, R., & Weisskirch, R. (2013). Personality factors as predictors of sexting. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 2589-2594.

Diliberto, G. M., & Mattey, E. (2009). Sexting: Just how much of a danger is it and what can school nurses do about it? NASN school nurse, 24, 262-267.

Dir, A., Cyders, M., & Coskunpinar, A. (2013). Form the bar to the bed via mobile phone: A first test of the role of problematic alcohol use, sexting, and impulsivity-related traits in sexual hookups. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 1664-1670.

Döring, N. (2012). Erotischer otoaustausch unter Jugendlichen: Verbreitung, Fuktionen und Folgen des Sexting [Erotic Photo Exchange among Teenagers: Popularity, Functions and Consequences of Sexting]. Zeitschrift für Sexualforschung, 25, 4-25.

Draper, N. (2012). Is your teen at risk? Discourses of adolescent sexting in United States television news. Journal of Children and Media, 6, 221-236.

Drouin, M., & Landgraff, C. (2012). Texting, sexting, and attachment in college students’ romantic relationships. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 444-449.

Drouin, M., Vogel, K. N., Surbey, A., & Stills, J. R. (2013). Let's talk about sexting, baby: Computer-mediated sexual behaviors among young adults. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, A25-A30.

Emeagwali, N., Bailey, R., & Azim, F. (2012). Textmania: Text messaging during the manic phase of bipolar I disorder. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 23 , 519-522.

Farber, B. A., Shafron, G., Hamadani, J., Wald, E., & Nitzburg, G. (2012). Children, technology, problems, and preferences. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68, 1225-1229.

Fein, H. (2011). Judging victims: Why we stigmatize survivors, and how they reclaim respect. Contemporary Sociology A Journal of Reviews, 40, 27-28.

Ferguson, C. (2011). Sexting behaviors among young Hispanic women: Incidence and association with other high-risk sexual behaviors. The Psychiatric Quarterly, 82, 239-243.

Fields, J. (2008). Risky Lessons: Sex education and social inequality. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Fontenot, H. B., & Fantasia, H.C. (2011). Issues and influences on sexual violence within the adolescent population. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing: Clinical Scholarship for the Care of Women, Childbearing Families, & Newborns, 40, 215-216.

Gala, J., & Kapadia, S. (2013). Romantic relationships in emerging adulthood: A developmental perspective. Psychological Studies, 58, 406-418.

Gordon-Messer, D., Bauermeister, J., Grodzinski, A., & Zimmerman, M. (2013). Sexting among young adults. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52, 301-306.

Harrison, M. (2011). College students' prevalence and perceptions of text messaging while driving. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43, 1516-1520.

Hasinoff, A. (2013). Sexting as media production: Rethinking social media and sexuality. New Media & Society, 15, 449-465.

Hasinoff, A. (without year). Sexting Tips. Retrieved from:

Hensel, D. J. (2012). Text messaging and adolescents: Clues to promoting sexual rights. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51, 203-204.

Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. (2012). School Climate 2.0: Preventing Cyberbullying and Sexting One Classroom at a Time. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Sage.

Hua, L. (2012). Technology and sexual risky behavior in adolescents. Adolescent Psychiatry, 2, 221-228.

Inbar, M. (2009). ‘Sexting’ bullying cited in teen's suicide. 13-year-old Hope Witsell hanged herself after topless photos circulated. MSNBC Today, 2 December 2009. Retrieved from:

Jewell, J., & Brown, C. (2013). Sexting, catcall, and butt slaps: How gender stereotypes and perceived group norms predict sexualized behavior. Sex Roles, online first.

Judge, A. (2012). "Sexting" among U.S. Adolescents: Psychological and legal perspectives. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 20, 86-96.

Karaian, L. (2012). Lolita speaks: "Sexting", teenage girls and the law. Crime, Media, Culture, 8, 57-73.

Karaian, L. (2013). Policing "Sexting": Responsibilization, respectability and sexual subjectivity in child protection / crime prevention responses to teenagers' digital sexual expression. Theoretical criminology, online first.

Katzman, D. K. (2010). Sexting: Keeping teens safe and responsible in a technologically savvy world. Paediatrics and Child Health 15, 41-45.

Kendall, N. (2013). The Sex Education Debates. Chicago: Universiy of Chicago Press.

Kitt, K. E. (2012). Hot Sex Text Tips. Lil Black Dress Press.

Knowledge Networks (2009). The Associated Press-MTV Poll Digital Abuse Survey. Retrieved from:

Korenis, P., & Billick, S. (2013). Forensic implications: Adolescent sexting and cyberbullying. Psychiatric Quaterly, online first.

Kotz, P. (2009). Hope Witsell, 13, commits suicide due to bullying over popless photo she sexted. Retrieved from:

Klettke, B., Hallford, D., & Mellor, D. (2014). Sexting prevalence and correlates: A systematic literature review. Clinical Psychology Review, 34, 44-53.

Kreager, D., & Staff, J. (2009). The sexual double standard and adolescent peer acceptance. Social Psychology Quarterly 72, 143-164.

Lee, M., Crofts, T., Salter, M., Milivojevic, S., & McGovern, A. (2013). "Let's get sexting": Risk, power, sex and criminalisation in the moral domain. International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 2(1), 35-49.

Lerum, K., & Dworkin, S. (2009). "Bad girls rule": An interdisciplinary feminist commentary on the report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Journal of Sex Research, 46: 250-263.

Levine, D. (2013). Sexting: A terrifying health risk… or the new normal for young adults? Journal of Adolescent Health, 52, 257-258.

Lim, S. S. (2013). On mobile communication and youth "deviance" – Beyond moral, media and mobile panics. Mobile Media & Communication, 1, 96-101.

Livingstone, S. (2008). Taking risky opportunites in youthful content creation: teenagers' use of social networking sites for intimacy, privacy and self-expression. New Media & Society, 10, 393-411.

Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., & Ólafsson, K. (2011). Risks and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children: full findings and policy implications from the EU Kids Online survey of 9-16 year olds and their parents in 25 countries. EU Kids Online, Deliverable D4. EU Kids Online Network, London, UK. Retrieved from:

Lumby, C., & Funnell, N. (2012). "Between heat and light: The opportunity in moral panics". Crime, Media, Culture, 7, 277-291.

Maurović, I., & Knežević, M. (2012). Fizički izgied i internalizirani i eksternalizirani problemi u ponašanju adolescentic. / Physical appearance and internalized and externalized problems in the behavior of adolescents. Socijalna Psihijatrija, 40, 127-134.

McArdle, P. (2013). Review of clinical handbook of adolescent addiction. Addiction, 108, 2031-2022.

Mitchell, K., Finkelhor, D., Jones, L., & Wolak, J. (2012). Prevalence and characteristics of youth sexting: A national study. Pediatrics, 129, 13-20.

O'Hanlon, C. (without year). Sexting etiquette: What's cool and what's not. Retrieved from:

O'Keeffe, G., Clarke-Pearson, K., & Council on Communications and Media (2011). The impact of social media on children, adolescents, and families. Pediatrics, 127, 800-804.

Oravec, L. A. (2012). The ethics of sexting: Isses involving consent and the production of intimate content. In D. Heider & A. Massanari (Eds.), Digital Ethics: Research and Practice (pp. 129-145). New York: Lang.

Ostrager, B. (2010). SMS. OMG! LOL! TTYL: Translating the law to accomodate today's teens and the evolution from texting to sexting. Family Court Review, 48, 712-726.

Parker, T., Blackburn, K., Perry, M., & Hawks, J. (2013). Sexting as an intervention: Relationship satisfaction and motivation considerations. American Journal of Family Therapy, 41, 1-12.

Pascoe, C. J. (2011). Resource and risk: Youth sexuality and new media use. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 8, 5-17.

Peskin, M., Markhan, C., Addy, R., Shegog, R., Thiel, M., & Tortolero, S. (2013). Prevalence and patterns of sexting among ethnic minority urban high school students. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16, 454-459.

Peterson, Z. (2009). What is sexual empowerment? A multi-dimensional and process-oriented approach to adolescent girls' sexual empowerment. Sex Roles, 62, 307-313.

PewResearchCenter (2009). Teens and Sexting. How and why minors are sending sexually suggestive nude or nearly nude images via text messaging. Washington, DC: Retrieved from:

Ravenscraft, E. (2013). How to practice safe sexting, without resorting to digital abstinence. Lifehacker, 7 November 2013. Retrieved from:

Rice, E., Rhoades, H., Winetrobe, H., Sanchez, M., Montoya, J., Plant, A., & Kordic, T. (2012). Sexually explicit cell phone messaging associated with sexual risk among adolescents. Pediatrics, 130, 667-673.

Ringrose, J., Harvey, L., Gill, R., & Livingstone, S. (2013). Teen girls, sexual double standards and "sexting". Gendered value in digital exchange. Feminist Theory, 14, 305-323.

Sadhu, J. (2012). Sexting: The impact of a cultural phenomenon on psychiatric practice. Academic Psychiatry, 36, 76-81.

Salter, M., Crofts, T., & Lee, M. (2013). Beyond criminalisation and responsibilisation: Sexting, gender and young people. Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 24(3), 301-316.

Simpson, B. (2013). Challenging childhood, challenging children: Children's rights and sexting. Sexualities, 16, 690-709.

Srinivas, A., White, M., & Omar, H. (2011). Teens texting and consequences: A brief review. International Journal of Child and Adolescent Health, 4, 327-331.

Stone, N. (2011). The "Sexting" quagmire: Criminal justice responces to adolescents' electronic transmission of indecent images in the UK and the USA. Youth Justice, 11, 266-281.

Strassberg, D., McKinnon, R., Sustaíta, M., & Rullo, J. (2013). Sexting by high school students: An exploratory and descriptive study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42, 15-21.

The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy and (2009) Sex and Tech. Results from a survey of teens and young adults. Retrieved from:

Vanwesenbeeck, I. (2009). The risks and rights of sexualization: An appreciative commentary on Lerum and Dworkin's "Bad girls rule". Journal of Sex Research, 46 , 268-270.

Walker, S., Sanci, L., & Temple-Smith, M. (2013). Sexting: Young women's and men's views on its nature and origins. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52, 697-701.

Weiss, R., & Samenow, C. P. (2010). Smart phones, social networking, sexting and problematic sexual behaviors – A call for research. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 17, 241-246.

Weisskirch, R. S., & Delevi, R. (2011). "Sexting" and adult romantic attachment. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 1697-1701.

Wiederhold, B. (2011). Should adult sexting be considered for the DSM? Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14, 481.

Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., & Mitchell, K. (2012). How often are teens arrested for sexting? Data from a national sample of police cases. Pediatrics, 129, 4-12.

Wysocki, D. K., & Childers, C. D. (2011). "Let my fingers do the talking": Sexting and infidelity in Cyberspace. Sexuality & Culture, 15, 217-239.

Crossref Cited-by (90)

The listed references are provided by Cited-by (Crossref service) and thus do not represent the full list of sources citing the article.

1. A qualitative meta-synthesis of young peoples' experiences of ‘sexting’
Yvonne Wilkinson, Clare Whitfield, Sue Hannigan, Parveen Azam Ali, Mark Hayter
British Journal of School Nursing  vol: 11,  issue: 4,  first page: 183,  year: 2016

2. Sexting als Risiko?
Arne Dekker, Thula Koops
Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz  vol: 60,  issue: 9,  first page: 1034,  year: 2017

3. Handbuch Soziale Praktiken und Digitale Alltagswelten
Nicola Döring
ISBN 978-3-658-08460-8  Chapter 40-1,  first page: 1,  year: 2016

4. Meanings of Bodily and Sexual Expression in Youth Sexting Culture: Young Women’s Negotiation of Gendered Risks and Harms
Emily Setty
Sex Roles  vol: 80,  issue: 9-10,  first page: 586,  year: 2019

5. Sexting: Prevalence, Predictors, and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors among Postsecondary School Young People in Ibadan, Nigeria
Oluwatoyin Olatunde, Folusho Balogun
Frontiers in Public Health  vol: 5,  year: 2017

6. Adolescents and self-taken sexual images: A review of the literature
Karen Cooper, Ethel Quayle, Linda Jonsson, Carl Göran Svedin
Computers in Human Behavior  vol: 55,  first page: 706,  year: 2016

7. Abuse through sexual image sharing in schools: Response and responsibility
Jenny Lloyd
Gender and Education  first page: 1,  year: 2018

8. Online sexual abuse of adolescents by a perpetrator met online: a cross-sectional study
Linda S. Jonsson, Cecilia Fredlund, Gisela Priebe, Marie Wadsby, Carl Göran Svedin
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health  vol: 13,  issue: 1,  year: 2019

9. Teen sexting: Prevalence, characteristics and legal treatment
Carolina Villacampa
International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice  vol: 49,  first page: 10,  year: 2017

10. Handbuch Online-Kommunikation
Nicola Döring
ISBN 978-3-658-18017-1  Chapter 8-1,  first page: 1,  year: 2018

11. Reporting on young people, sexuality, and social media: a discourse theoretical analysis
Burcu Korkmazer, Sander De Ridder, Sofie Van Bauwel
Journal of Youth Studies  vol: 23,  issue: 3,  first page: 323,  year: 2020

12. It’s “vile” but is it violence? A case study analysis of news media representations of non-consensual sexual image-sharing
Denise Buiten
Feminist Media Studies  first page: 1,  year: 2020

13. Online, Offline, and Over the Line: Coercive Sexting Among Adolescent Dating Partners
Poco D. Kernsmith, Bryan G. Victor, Joanne P. Smith-Darden
Youth & Society  vol: 50,  issue: 7,  first page: 891,  year: 2018

14. Caregivers’ Perceptions and Responses to a New Norm: The Missing Link in Addressing Adolescent Sexting Behaviors in the U.S.
Rebecca L. Fix, Luciana C. Assini-Meytin, Andrew J. Harris, Elizabeth J. Letourneau
Archives of Sexual Behavior  year: 2020

15. Correlates and outcomes associated with sexting among justice involved youth: The role of developmental adversity, emotional disinhibitions, relationship context, and dating violence
Jamie Yoder, Jesse Hansen, Madison Precht
Children and Youth Services Review  vol: 94,  first page: 493,  year: 2018

16. How public health nurses’ deal with sexting among young people: a qualitative inquiry using the critical incident technique
Maria Clark, Alison Lewis, Sally Bradshaw, Caroline Bradbury-Jones
BMC Public Health  vol: 18,  issue: 1,  year: 2018

17. ‘Confident’ and ‘hot’ or ‘desperate’ and ‘cowardly’? Meanings of young men’s sexting practices in youth sexting culture
Emily Setty
Journal of Youth Studies  vol: 23,  issue: 5,  first page: 561,  year: 2020

18. The Role of Sexual Images in Online and Offline Sexual Behaviour With Minors
Ethel Quayle, Emily Newman
Current Psychiatry Reports  vol: 17,  issue: 6,  year: 2015

19. Onset Trajectories of Sexting and Other Sexual Behaviors Across High School: A Longitudinal Growth Mixture Modeling Approach
Davia B. Steinberg, Valerie A. Simon, Bryan G. Victor, Poco D. Kernsmith, Joanne P. Smith-Darden
Archives of Sexual Behavior  vol: 48,  issue: 8,  first page: 2321,  year: 2019

20. Sexting, Online Sexual Victimization, and Psychopathology Correlates by Sex: Depression, Anxiety, and Global Psychopathology
Aina M. Gassó, Katrin Mueller-Johnson, Irene Montiel
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health  vol: 17,  issue: 3,  first page: 1018,  year: 2020

21. Demystifying sexting: Adolescent sexting and its associations with parenting styles and sense of parental social control in Israel
Michal Dolev-Cohen, Tsameret Ricon
Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace  vol: 14,  issue: 1,  year: 2020

22. Sending Nudes: Sex, Self-Rated Mate Value, and Trait Machiavellianism Predict Sending Unsolicited Explicit Images
Evita March, Danielle L. Wagstaff
Frontiers in Psychology  vol: 8,  year: 2017

23. Images across Europe: The sending and receiving of sexual images and associations with interpersonal violence in young people's relationships
Marsha Wood, Christine Barter, Nicky Stanley, Nadia Aghtaie, Cath Larkins
Children and Youth Services Review  vol: 59,  first page: 149,  year: 2015

24. Sexting: adolescents’ perceptions of the applications used for, motives for, and consequences of sexting
Joris Van Ouytsel, Ellen Van Gool, Michel Walrave, Koen Ponnet, Emilie Peeters
Journal of Youth Studies  first page: 1,  year: 2016

25. Sexting Among Adolescents: The Emotional Impact and Influence of the Need for Popularity
Rosario Del Rey, Mónica Ojeda, José A. Casas, Joaquín A. Mora-Merchán, Paz Elipe
Frontiers in Psychology  vol: 10,  year: 2019

26. Association of Sexting With Sexual Behaviors and Mental Health Among Adolescents
Camille Mori, Jeff R. Temple, Dillon Browne, Sheri Madigan
JAMA Pediatrics  vol: 173,  issue: 8,  first page: 770,  year: 2019

27. The associations between sex drive, sexual self-concept, sexual orientation, and exposure to online victimization in Italian adolescents: Investigating the mediating role of verbal and visual sexting behaviors
D. Marengo, M. Settanni, C. Longobardi
Children and Youth Services Review  vol: 102,  first page: 18,  year: 2019

28. Are Online Sexual Activities and Sexting Good for Adults’ Sexual Well-Being? Results From a National Online Survey
Nicola Döring, M. Rohangis Mohseni
International Journal of Sexual Health  vol: 30,  issue: 3,  first page: 250,  year: 2018

29. Vulnerable Young People and Their Experience of Online Risks
Aiman El Asam, Adrienne Katz
Human–Computer Interaction  vol: 33,  issue: 4,  first page: 281,  year: 2018

30. Unpacking “Sexting”: A Systematic Review of Nonconsensual Sexting in Legal, Educational, and Psychological Literatures
Michelle A. Krieger
Trauma, Violence, & Abuse  vol: 18,  issue: 5,  first page: 593,  year: 2017

31. Handbuch Online-Kommunikation
Nicola Döring
ISBN 978-3-658-18016-4  Chapter 8,  first page: 167,  year: 2019

32. The Nature and Extent of Sexting Among a National Sample of Middle and High School Students in the U.S.
Justin W. Patchin, Sameer Hinduja
Archives of Sexual Behavior  vol: 48,  issue: 8,  first page: 2333,  year: 2019

33. Predicting the Willingness to Engage in Non-Consensual Forwarding of Sexts: The Role of Pornography and Instrumental Notions of Sex
Johanna M. F. van Oosten, Laura Vandenbosch
Archives of Sexual Behavior  vol: 49,  issue: 4,  first page: 1121,  year: 2020

34. Psychological Correlates of Teen Sexting in three Countries – Direct and Indirect Associations between Self-control, Self-esteem, and Sexting
Sebastian Wachs, Michelle F. Wright, Karsten D. Wolf
International Journal of Developmental Science  vol: 11,  issue: 3-4,  first page: 109,  year: 2017

35. Visual gossiping: non-consensual ‘nude’ sharing among young people in Denmark
Katrine Bindesbøl Holm Johansen, Bodil Maria Pedersen, Tine Tjørnhøj-Thomsen
Culture, Health & Sexuality  vol: 21,  issue: 9,  first page: 1029,  year: 2019

36. Critical Issues Impacting Science, Technology, Society (STS), and Our Future
Samuel E. Ehrenreich, Diana J. Meter, Marion K. Underwood
ISBN 9781522579502  chapter 6,  first page: 124,  year: 2019

37. Sexting
Michel Walrave, Joris Van Ouytsel, Koen Ponnet, Jeff R. Temple
ISBN 978-3-319-71882-8  Chapter 1,  first page: 1,  year: 2018

38. Sexting Among Married Couples: Who Is Doing It, and Are They More Satisfied?
Brandon T. McDaniel, Michelle Drouin
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking  vol: 18,  issue: 11,  first page: 628,  year: 2015

39. Adolescent Sexting: The Roles of Self-Objectification and Internalization of Media Ideals
Ashton Gerding Speno, Jennifer Stevens Aubrey
Psychology of Women Quarterly  vol: 43,  issue: 1,  first page: 88,  year: 2019

40. A ‘Control Model’ of Social Media Engagement in Adolescence: A Grounded Theory Analysis
Throuvala, Griffiths, Rennoldson, Kuss
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health  vol: 16,  issue: 23,  first page: 4696,  year: 2019

41. Sexting, Web-Based Risks, and Safety in Two Representative National Samples of Young Australians: Prevalence, Perspectives, and Predictors
Alyssa C Milton, Benjamin A Gill, Tracey A Davenport, Mitchell Dowling, Jane M Burns, Ian B Hickie
JMIR Mental Health  vol: 6,  issue: 6,  first page: e13338,  year: 2019

42. Encyclopedia of Mobile Phone Behavior
Lara Karaian, Andrew Tompkins
ISBN 9781466682405  chapter 118,  first page: 1500,  year: 2015

43. Management of non-consensually shared youth-produced sexual images: A Delphi study with adolescents as experts
Ethel Quayle, Laura Cariola
Child Abuse & Neglect  vol: 95,  first page: 104064,  year: 2019

44. A Rights-Based Approach to Youth Sexting: Challenging Risk, Shame, and the Denial of Rights to Bodily and Sexual Expression Within Youth Digital Sexual Culture
Emily Setty
International Journal of Bullying Prevention  vol: 1,  issue: 4,  first page: 298,  year: 2019

45. Gender, Pressure, Coercion and Pleasure: Untangling Motivations for Sexting Between Young People
Murray Lee, Thomas Crofts
British Journal of Criminology  vol: 55,  issue: 3,  first page: 454,  year: 2015

46. Insecure attachments: Attachment, emotional regulation, sexting and condomless sex among women in relationships
Leora Trub, Tyrel J. Starks
Computers in Human Behavior  vol: 71,  first page: 140,  year: 2017

47. Handbuch Soziale Praktiken und Digitale Alltagswelten
Nicola Döring
ISBN 978-3-658-08357-1  Chapter 40,  first page: 301,  year: 2020

48. Individual differences and developmental trends in sexting motivations
Dora Bianchi, Mara Morelli, Roberto Baiocco, Antonio Chirumbolo
Current Psychology  year: 2019

49. Family functioning patterns predict teenage girls’ sexting
Dora Bianchi, Mara Morelli, Roberto Baiocco, Elena Cattelino, Fiorenzo Laghi, Antonio Chirumbolo
International Journal of Behavioral Development  vol: 43,  issue: 6,  first page: 507,  year: 2019

50. Cyberpsychology as Everyday Digital Experience across the Lifespan
Dave Harley, Julie Morgan, Hannah Frith
ISBN 978-1-137-59200-2  Chapter 5,  first page: 105,  year: 2018

51. Teens and 'Sexting' in New Zealand: Prevalence and Attitudes
Edgar Pacheco, Neil Melhuish
SSRN Electronic Journal   year: 2017

52. “Sex Pics?”: Longitudinal Predictors of Sexting Among Adolescents
Manuel Gámez-Guadix, Patricia de Santisteban
Journal of Adolescent Health  vol: 63,  issue: 5,  first page: 608,  year: 2018

53. The Role of Child Sexual Abuse Images in Coercive and Non-Coercive Relationships with Adolescents: A Thematic Review of the Literature
Ethel Quayle, Karen Cooper
Child & Youth Services  vol: 36,  issue: 4,  first page: 312,  year: 2015

54. Sexting within young adults’ dating and romantic relationships
Joris Van Ouytsel, Narissra M Punyanunt-Carter, Michel Walrave, Koen Ponnet
Current Opinion in Psychology  vol: 36,  first page: 55,  year: 2020

55. A Prospective Study of High-School Adolescent Sexting Behavior and Psychological Distress
Arta Dodaj, Kristina Sesar, Slavica Jerinić
The Journal of Psychology  vol: 154,  issue: 2,  first page: 111,  year: 2020

56. Feind oder Freund in meiner Hosentasche? – Zur Rolle von Individuum, Peergroup und Eltern für die (dys)funktionale Handynutzung
Karin Knop, Dorothée Hefner
Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie  vol: 67,  issue: 2,  first page: 204,  year: 2018

57. Offline and Online Sexual Risk Behavior among Youth in the Netherlands: Findings from “Sex under the Age of 25”
Hanneke De Graaf, Mirthe Verbeek, Marieke Van den Borne, Suzanne Meijer
Frontiers in Public Health  vol: 6,  year: 2018

58. I’ll Show You Mine so You’ll Show Me Yours: Motivations and Personality Variables in Photographic Exhibitionism
Flora Oswald, Alex Lopes, Kaylee Skoda, Cassandra L. Hesse, Cory L. Pedersen
The Journal of Sex Research  first page: 1,  year: 2019

59. Adolescent Profiles According to Their Beliefs and Affinity to Sexting. A Cluster Study
Encarnación Soriano-Ayala, Verónica C. Cala, Rachida Dalouh
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health  vol: 17,  issue: 3,  first page: 1087,  year: 2020

60. Longitudinal relationships between sexting and involvement in both bullying and cyberbullying
Mónica Ojeda, Rosario Del Rey, Simon C. Hunter
Journal of Adolescence  vol: 77,  first page: 81,  year: 2019

61. It is Time to Teach Safe Sexting
Justin W. Patchin, Sameer Hinduja
Journal of Adolescent Health  vol: 66,  issue: 2,  first page: 140,  year: 2020

62. A Prototype Willingness Approach to the Relation Between Geo-social Dating Apps and Willingness to Sext with Dating App Matches
Lara Schreurs, Sindy R. Sumter, Laura Vandenbosch
Archives of Sexual Behavior  vol: 49,  issue: 4,  first page: 1133,  year: 2020

63. The Palgrave Handbook of Sexuality Education
Kath Albury, Amy Adele Hasinoff, Theresa Senft
ISBN 978-1-137-40033-8  Chapter 26,  first page: 527,  year: 2017

64. The International Encyclopedia of Media Literacy
Joris Ouytsel, Michel Walrave, Koen Ponnet, Jeff R. Temple
ISBN 9781118978238  first page: 1,  year: 2018

65. The Prevalence of Sexting Behaviors Among Emerging Adults: A Meta-Analysis
Camille Mori, Jessica E. Cooke, Jeff R. Temple, Anh Ly, Yu Lu, Nina Anderson, Christina Rash, Sheri Madigan
Archives of Sexual Behavior  vol: 49,  issue: 4,  first page: 1103,  year: 2020

66. Jahrbuch Medienpädagogik 12
Sebastian Wachs, Karsten D. Wolf
ISBN 978-3-658-09809-4  Chapter 5,  first page: 71,  year: 2015

67. Sexting Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Correlates in Spanish Secondary School Students
Cristian Molla-Esparza, Emelina López-González, Josep-María Losilla
Sexuality Research and Social Policy  year: 2020

68. Sexting and risky sexual behaviours among undergraduate students in Botswana: An exploratory study
Obakeng L. Makgale, Ilse Elisabeth Plattner
Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace  vol: 11,  issue: 2,  year: 2017

69. Sexting as sexual stigma: The paradox of sexual self-representation in digital youth cultures
Sander De Ridder
European Journal of Cultural Studies  vol: 22,  issue: 5-6,  first page: 563,  year: 2019

70. Prevalence and profile of sexting among adolescents in Ecuador
Paula Yépez-Tito, Marta Ferragut, María J. Blanca
Journal of Youth Studies  vol: 22,  issue: 4,  first page: 505,  year: 2019

71. (Don’t) Look at Me! How the Assumed Consensual or Non-Consensual Distribution Affects Perception and Evaluation of Sexting Images
Arne Dekker, Frederike Wenzlaff, Anne Daubmann, Hans O. Pinnschmidt, Peer Briken
Journal of Clinical Medicine  vol: 8,  issue: 5,  first page: 706,  year: 2019

72. Assessing the Links of Sexting, Cybervictimization, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation Among University Students
José Luis Jasso Medrano, Fuensanta Lopez Rosales, Manuel Gámez-Guadix
Archives of Suicide Research  vol: 22,  issue: 1,  first page: 153,  year: 2018

73. Sexting among high school students in a metropolis in Ghana: an exploratory and descriptive study
F. Baiden, J. Amankwah, A. Owusu
Journal of Children and Media  first page: 1,  year: 2020

74. Sexting
Kathleen Van Royen, Karolien Poels, Heidi Vandebosch, Michel Walrave
ISBN 978-3-319-71882-8  Chapter 6,  first page: 81,  year: 2018

75. Sexting: A new, digital vehicle for intimate partner aggression?
Michelle Drouin, Jody Ross, Elizabeth Tobin
Computers in Human Behavior  vol: 50,  first page: 197,  year: 2015

76. Soziale Onlinenetzwerke in der Psychotherapie mit Jugendlichen
Michael Borg-Laufs
Psychotherapeut  vol: 60,  issue: 2,  first page: 151,  year: 2015

77. “When It Deviates It Becomes Harassment, Doesn’t It?” A Qualitative Study on the Definition of Sexting According to Adolescents and Young Adults, Parents, and Teachers
Yara Barrense-Dias, Joan-Carles Surís, Christina Akre
Archives of Sexual Behavior  vol: 48,  issue: 8,  first page: 2357,  year: 2019

78. Sext education: pedagogies of sex, gender and shame in the schoolyards ofTaggedandExposed
Amy Shields Dobson, Jessica Ringrose
Sex Education  vol: 16,  issue: 1,  first page: 8,  year: 2016

79. Longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between sexting, online sexual solicitations, and cyberbullying among minors
Manuel Gámez-Guadix, Estibaliz Mateos-Pérez
Computers in Human Behavior  vol: 94,  first page: 70,  year: 2019

80. A systematic review of the current knowledge regarding revenge pornography and non-consensual sharing of sexually explicit media
Kate Walker, Emma Sleath
Aggression and Violent Behavior  vol: 36,  first page: 9,  year: 2017

81. Construction and Validation of the Intimate Images Diffusion Scale Among Adolescents
María Penado, María Luisa Rodicio-García, María Marcos Cuesta, Tania Corrás
Frontiers in Psychology  vol: 10,  year: 2019

82. Sex(t) Talk: A Qualitative Analysis of Young Adults’ Negotiations of the Pleasures and Perils of Sexting
Melissa Burkett
Sexuality & Culture  vol: 19,  issue: 4,  first page: 835,  year: 2015

83. Technology-mediated sexual interaction and relationships: a systematic review of the literature
Erin Leigh Courtice, Krystelle Shaughnessy
Sexual and Relationship Therapy  vol: 32,  issue: 3-4,  first page: 269,  year: 2017

84. Does body dissatisfaction influence sexting behaviors in daily life?
Dominika Howard, Bianca Klettke, Mathew Ling, Isabel Krug, Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz
Computers in Human Behavior  vol: 101,  first page: 320,  year: 2019

85. Whether or not to engage in sexting: Explaining adolescent sexting behaviour by applying the prototype willingness model
Michel Walrave, Koen Ponnet, Joris Van Ouytsel, Ellen Van Gool, Wannes Heirman, Anouk Verbeek
Telematics and Informatics  vol: 32,  issue: 4,  first page: 796,  year: 2015

86. Opinions of Adolescents on Prevention Related to Sexting: a Q-Methodology Study
Yara Barrense-Dias, Christina Akre, Joan-Carles Suris, André Berchtold
Sexuality Research and Social Policy  year: 2020

87. “I keep hearing reports on the news that it's a real problem at the moment”: Public health nurses’ understandings of sexting practices among young people
Caroline Bradbury‐Jones, Sally Bradshaw, Maria Clark, Alison Lewis
Health & Social Care in the Community  vol: 27,  issue: 4,  first page: 1063,  year: 2019

88. Research on Sexting and Emotion Regulation Difficulties: A review and Commentary
Arta Dodaj, Kristina Sesar
International Journal of Developmental Science  vol: 14,  issue: 1-2,  first page: 1,  year: 2020

89. Sexting in adolescents: Prevalence and behaviours
Mónica Ojeda, Rosario del-Rey, Michel Walrave, Heidi Vandebosch
Comunicar  vol: 28,  issue: 64,  year: 2020

90. Children in Identified Sexual Images - Who Are they? Self- and Non-Self-Taken Images in the International Child Sexual Exploitation Image Database 2006-2015
Ethel Quayle, Linda S. Jonsson, Karen Cooper, James Traynor, Carl Göran Svedin
Child Abuse Review  vol: 27,  issue: 3,  first page: 223,  year: 2018